Digital Radio Frequency Memories (DRFM)

Course length:

2 Days



Course dates

Interested in attending? Have a suggestion about running this course near you?
Register your interest now

Want to run this event on-site? Enquire about running this event in-house


In this 2-day course, the design of phase- and amplitude-sampling DRFM architectures are presented along with their problems and solutions. Narrowband and wideband designs are compared. Calculation of the spurious signals is presented and design strategies for advanced DRFM decoys for counter-targeting, counter-terminal applications are emphasized. Methods to synthesize multiple, structured false-targets against high range resolution profiling radars (ISAR, SAR) are presented. Derivation of false-target phase and gain coefficients are discussed including those for the required clutter models. Digital circuit design issues e.g., quantization errors, overflow, dynamic range are addressed. Methods used by adversaries to discriminate the DRFM false-targets from actual targets are offered leading to further DRFM design considerations. Lessons learned from recent EW flight tests are emphasized.

This course is intended primarily for radar, EW engineers and scientists interested in the design of digital RF memories and signal processing algorithms for electronic attack. Attendees should have a good knowledge of radar systems and signal processing. Many example problems are worked out to demonstrate the concepts and further the understanding of the material being presented.

What You Will Learn:

Design of DRFM amplitude and phase sampling architectures for electronic warfare applications. Trade-offs and the significance of noise components is calculated. Operational considerations for narrowband and wideband DRFMs are discussed. Identification and prediction of spurious signals is presented and methods to reduce their effect is quantified. Algorithms for time and frequency modulation are presented. Use of DRFMs in a hard-kill situation is also presented. Design of structured false-target processors is emphasized. Lessons learned from recent EW flight tests are presented and counter-DRFM techniques are also discussed.

Course Outline:

  1. Architectures, Design Trade-offs Phase- and amplitude sampling architectures; Single and double sideband systems; Mathematical models for both digital and analog components; Limitations including noise components; Prediction of dynamic performance and derivation of DRFM transfer functions.
  2. Technical Considerations Instantaneous, operating bandwidth requirements; Significant problems in DRFM design and their solutions; Calculation of spurious signals; Efficiency comparison between phase and amplitude designs.
  3. Algorithms for Electronic Attack Overall performance prediction of electronic attack; Algorithms for time-delay, advance modulation; for electronic attack; Algorithms for frequency modulation; Effects of coordinated time-frequency modulation.
  4. Advanced Decoy Processor Designs DRFM role in hard-kill chain; Counter-surveillance, counter-targeting and counter-terminal applications; Effects on coherent range-Doppler processors; Digital image synthesizer design; False target and sea-clutter coefficients; Bit-level models and pipelined architectures.
  5. Lessons from UAS EW Flight Tests Electromagnetic maneuver warfare (EMW) and counter-SAM suppression configurations; Eliminating geometrical EA limitations; Measures of effectiveness; Fielded DRFM configurations; DRFM swarm concepts and preliminary flight test results.
  6. Differentiating DRFM false targets Statistical signal processing; Principal component analysis and the Fisher ratio; Polarization modulation algorithms; Multivariate analysis of variance; Multi-layer perceptrons.



REGISTRATION: There is no obligation or payment required to enter the Registration for an actively scheduled course. We understand that you may need approvals but please register as early as possible or contact us so we know of your interest in this course offering.

SCHEDULING: If this course is not on the current schedule of open enrollment courses and you are interested in attending this or another course as an open enrollment, please contact us at (410)956-8805 or Please indicate the course name, number of students who wish to participate. and a preferred time frame. ATI typically schedules open enrollment courses with a 3-5 month lead-time. To express your interest in an open enrollment course not on our current schedule, please email us at

For on-site pricing, you can use the request an on-site quote form, call us at (410)956-8805, or email us at