This Maybe One Class You WANT to Blow Up in Your Face Monday, November 07, 2011

At ATI, the course IS the Bomb!!! Video Clip: Click to Watch Do you know how to evaluate the performance and vulnerability of explosives and propellants? This four-day course is designed for scientists, engineers and managers interested in the current state of explosive and propellant technology. After an introduction to shock waves, the current explosive technology […]
At ATI, the course IS the Bomb!!!
Video Clip: Click to Watch
Do you know how to evaluate the performance and vulnerability of explosives and propellants?
This four-day course is designed for scientists, engineers and managers interested in the current state of explosive and propellant technology. After an introduction to shock waves, the current explosive technology is described. Numerical methods for evaluating explosive and propellant sensitivity to shock waves are described and applied to vulnerability problems such as projectile impact and burning to detonation
This course is suited for scientists, engineers, and managers interested in the current state of explosive and propellant technology, and in the use of numerical modeling to evaluate the performance and vulnerability of explosives and propellants
Since 1984, the Applied Technology Institute (ATI) has provided leading-edge public courses and onsite technical training to DoD and NASA personnel, as well as contractors. Whether you are a busy engineer, a technical expert or a project manager, you can enhance your understanding of complex systems in a short time. You will become aware of the basic vocabulary essential to interact meaningfully with your colleagues. If you are in need of more technical training, why not take a short course? ATI short courses are less than a week long and are designed to help you keep your professional knowledge up-to-date. You can boost your career with the strong foundation for understanding the issues that must be confronted in the use and regulation of explosives and propellants. Course Outline, Samplers, and Notes Click on the course title below for more information. ATI’S EXPLOSIVES TECHNOLOGY & MODELING COURSE Click here now to see for yourself the value of this course before you sign up. What you will learn when you take this course:
  • What are Shock Waves and Detonation Waves?
  • What makes an Explosive Hazardous?
  • Where Shock Wave and Explosive Data is available
  • How to model Explosive and Propellant Performance
  • How to model Explosive Hazards and Vulnerability
  • How to use the furnished explosive performance and hydrodynamic codes
  • The current state of explosive and propellant technology
Participants will receive a copy of Numerical Modeling of Explosives and Propellants, Third Edition by Dr. Charles Mader, 2008 CRC Press. In addition, participants will receive an updated CD-ROM. About ATI and the Instructors Our mission here at ATI is to provide expert training and the highest quality professional development in space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, and signal processing. We are not a one-size-fits-all educational facility. Our short classes include both introductory and advanced courses. ATI’s instructors are world-class experts who are the best in the business. They are carefully selected for their ability to clearly explain advanced technology. Charles L. Mader, Ph.D., is a retired Fellow of the Los Alamos National Laboratory and President consulting company. Dr. Mader authored the monograph Numerical Modeling of Detonation, and also wrote four dynamic material property data volumes published by the University of California Press. His book and CD-ROM entitled Numerical Modeling of Explosives and Propellants, Third Edition, published in 2008 by CRC Press will be the text for the course. He is the author of Numerical Modeling of Water Waves, Second Edition, published in 2004 by CRC Press. He is listed in Who’s Who in America and Who’s Who in the World. He has consulted and guest lectured for public and private organizations in several countries. Dates and Locations The next dates and locations of this course are as follows: December 12-15, 2011 Albuquerque, NM September, 2012 MD/VA Area
 

ATI Wishes You a Happy Halloween!

Video Clip: Click to Watch Scary is NOT taking one of ATI’s Short Technical Classes Going back to school does not have to be terrifying like Halloween is. Just you and several like-minded professionals learning from a world class ghoul who loves to teach. Our short courses are designed for individuals involved in planning, designing, building, […]
Video Clip: Click to Watch
Scary is NOT taking one of ATI’s Short Technical Classes
Going back to school does not have to be terrifying like Halloween is. Just you and several like-minded professionals learning from a world class ghoul who loves to teach. Our short courses are designed for individuals involved in planning, designing, building, launching, and operating today’s frighteningly complex systems. The Applied Technology Institute (ATI) is not a one-size-fits-all educational facility. Our short classes include both introductory and advanced courses. Whether you are a busy engineer, a wicked witch or a project manager, you can enhance your understanding of scary space and defense systems in a short time. You will also become aware of the basic vocabulary essential to interact meaningfully with your disturbing colleagues. Course Outline, Samplers, and Notes Determine for yourself the value of our creepy courses before you sign up. See our samples (See Slide Samples) on some of our courses. Or check out the new ATI channel on YouTube. After attending the course you will receive a full set of detailed notes in blood from the class for future reference, as well as a certificate of completion. Please visit our website for more ghoulish information. About ATI and the Instructors ATI’s instructors are world-class experts who are the best in the business. They are carefully selected for their ability to clearly explain eerie and advanced technology. Our mission here at ATI is to provide expert training and the highest quality professional development in terrifying space, communications, defense, sonar, radar systems. Dates and Locations For the dates and locations of all of our short courses, please rattle the chains (links) below. Sincerely, The ATI Courses Team P.S. Call today for registration at 410-956-8805 or 888-501-2100 or access our website at www.ATIcourses.com. For general questions or inquisitions please email us at ATI@ATIcourses.com or Join, Link, Follow or Share with us at: Join us on Facebook Link to us on LinkedIn Follow us on Twitter Share with us on Slideshare P.P.S. What Happens at ATI does NOT Stay at ATI because our training helps you and your organization remain competitive in this changing and often horrifying world. Please feel free to call Mr. Jenkins personally to discuss your requirements and objectives. He will be glad to explain in gory detail what ATI can do for you, what it will cost, and what you can expect in results and future performance.

If You Want to BE a Rocket Scientist, Maybe You should LISTEN to one

Video Clip: Click to Watch Everything about Orbital Mechanics is Counterintuitive  Award-winning rocket scientist, Thomas S. Logsdon really enjoys teaching this short course titled, ATI’s Orbital Mechanics: Ideas and Insights, because everything about orbital mechanics is counterintuitive. In this comprehensive four day short course, Mr. Logsdon uses four hundred clever color graphics to clarify these and […]
Each student will receive a new personal GPS Navigator with multi-channel capability
Video Clip: Click to Watch
Everything about Orbital Mechanics is Counterintuitive 
Award-winning rocket scientist, Thomas S. Logsdon really enjoys teaching this short course titled, ATI’s Orbital Mechanics: Ideas and Insights, because everything about orbital mechanics is counterintuitive. In this comprehensive four day short course, Mr. Logsdon uses four hundred clever color graphics to clarify these and a dozen other puzzling mysteries associated with orbital mechanics. He also provides you with a few simple one-page derivations using real-world inputs to illustrate all the key concepts being explored. For example, did you know that if you fly your spacecraft into a 100-mile circular orbit and: • Put on the brakes, your spacecraft speeds up! • Mash down the accelerator, it slows down!! • Throw a banana peel out the window and 45 minutes later it will come back and slap you in the face!!! Why not take a short course? Since 1984, the Applied Technology Institute (ATI) has provided leading-edge public courses and onsite technical training to DoD and NASA personnel, as well as contractors. ATI short courses are less than a week long and are designed to help you keep your professional knowledge up-to-date. Our courses provide a practical overview of space and defense technologies which provide a strong foundation for understanding the issues that must be confronted in the use, regulation and development of complex systems. Whether you are a busy engineer, a technical expert or a project manager, you can enhance your understanding of satellite systems in a short time. You will become aware of the basic vocabulary essential to interact meaningfully with your colleagues. Determine for yourself the value of our courses before you sign up. Click here for more information on this course Click below to see slide samples from this course   Click below to see a video clip of this course on YouTube. What You Will Learn When You Take this Course: • How do we launch a satellite into orbit and maneuver it into a new location? • How do today’s designers fashion performance-optimal constellations of satellites swarming the sky? • How do planetary swing by maneuvers provide such amazing gains in performance? • How can we design the best multi-stage rocket for a particular mission? • What are libration point orbits? Were they really discovered in 1772? How do we place satellites into halo orbits circling around these empty points in space? • What are JPL’s superhighways in space? How were they discovered? How are they revolutionizing the exploration of space? After attending the course you will receive a full set of detailed notes from the class for future reference, as well as a certificate of completion. Each student will receive a new personal GPS Navigator with multi-channel capability. Please visit our website for more valuable information. About ATI and the Instructors Our mission here at ATI is to provide expert training and the highest quality professional development in space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, and signal processing. We are not a one-size-fits-all educational facility. Our short classes include both introductory and advanced courses. ATI’s instructors are world-class experts who are the best in the business. They are carefully selected for their ability to clearly explain advanced technology. For more than 30 years, Thomas S. Logsdon, has conducted broad ranging studies on orbital mechanics at McDonnell Douglas, Boeing Aerospace, and Rockwell International His key research projects have included Project Apollo, the Skylab capsule, the nuclear flight stage and the GPS radionavigation system. Mr. Logsdon has taught 300 short courses and lectured in 31 different countries on six continents. He has written 40 technical papers and journal articles and 29 technical books including Striking It Rich in Space, Orbital Mechanics: Theory and Applications, Understanding the Navstar, and Mobile Communication Satellites. Dates and Locations The next date and location of this short course is: Jan 9-12, 2012 Cape Canaveral,FL


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What there is to Know Grows Exponentially Every Day

Thomas Edison and His Phonograph (1877) Video Clip: Click to Watch In a knowledge-based economy, your success is directly proportional to the amount of knowledge you possess As Thomas Edison observed, “We don’t know one millionth of one percent about anything.” At the rate at which new information is generated today, doesn’t it seem like the […]
Thomas Edison and His Phonograph (1877)
Thomas Edison and His Phonograph (1877)
Video Clip: Click to Watch
In a knowledge-based economy, your success is directly proportional to the amount of knowledge you possess
As Thomas Edison observed, “We don’t know one millionth of one percent about anything.” At the rate at which new information is generated today, doesn’t it seem like the gap between what you know and what you need is to know is growing at a dizzying pace? From submarine sonar to military radar to an orbiting spacecraft, you or your team must face the challenges of tomorrow with what you know today. With the practical knowledge gained from a short course, you can put textbook theories into real-world practice and expand your problem-solving and risk management skills significantly. Whether you are a busy engineer, a technical expert or a project manager, you can enhance your understanding of these complex systems in a short time. Since 1984, the Applied Technology Institute (ATI) has provided leading-edge public courses and onsite technical training to DoD and NASA personnel, as well as contractors. Our courses provide a practical overview of space and defense technologies which provide a strong foundation for understanding the issues that must be confronted in the use, regulation and development of complex systems. You will become aware of the basic vocabulary essential to interact meaningfully with your colleagues. Course Outline, Samplers, and Notes Our short courses are designed for individuals involved in planning, designing, building, launching, and operating space and defense systems. Determine for yourself the value of our courses before you sign up. See our samples (See Slide Samples) on some of our courses. Or check out the new ATI channel on YouTube. After attending the course you will receive a full set of detailed notes from the class for future reference, as well as a certificate of completion. Please visit our website for more valuable information.


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Do You Wish to Enhance Your Understanding of Unmanned Aircraft?

Where will you go to learn more about this exciting field? Video Clip: Click to Watch Worldwide commercial, government and military use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) is expected to increase significantly in the future, placing unprecedented demands on scare radio resources. In fact, the Teal Group’s 2009 market study estimates that UAS spending will […]
MQ-9 Reaper on Approach for Landing
Where will you go to learn more about this exciting field?

Video Clip: Click to Watch

Worldwide commercial, government and military use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) is expected to increase significantly in the future, placing unprecedented demands on scare radio resources. In fact, the Teal Group’s 2009 market study estimates that UAS spending will almost double over the next decade, from current worldwide UAS expenditures of $4.4 billion annually to $8.7 billion within a decade.

Since 1984, the Applied Technology Institute (ATI) has provided leading-edge public courses and onsite technical training to DoD and NASA personnel, as well as contractors. Whether you are a busy engineer, a technical expert or a project manager, you can enhance your understanding of complex systems in a short time. You will become aware of the basic vocabulary essential to interact meaningfully with your colleagues. Course Outline, Samplers, and Notes Determine for yourself the value of our UAS course before you sign up. Click here for UAS Course Slide Sampler After attending the course you will receive a full set of detailed notes from the class for future reference, as well as a certificate of completion. Please visit our website for more valuable information. About ATI and the Instructors Our mission here at ATI is to provide expert training and the highest quality professional development in space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, and signal processing. We are not a one-size-fits-all educational facility. Our short classes include both introductory and advanced courses. ATI’s instructors are world-class experts who are the best in the business. They are carefully selected for their ability to clearly explain advanced technology. Mr. Mark N. Lewellen, the ATI UAS instructor, has over twenty-five years with a wide variety of satellite, space, and aviation related projects. He is the Vice Chairman of a UAS group (in the United States) that is responsible for generating the technical basis for future UAS spectrum requirements. He was also chairman of an international group preparing for a World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-2012) that may revise the international Radio Regulations governing the use of the radio-frequency spectrum.
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Another Accomplishment for Lockheed Martin: Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile Blocked by Aegis BMD

Yet another accomplishment was achieved by Lockheed Martin’s Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) on April 14, 2011. Aegis BMD was proven effective against intermediate range ballistic missiles. USS O’Kane (DDG-77, Arleigh Burke-class destroyer ) was used for the exercise. Here is how it worked. • Aegis BMD used AN/TPY-2 radar to track the missile • […]
Yet another accomplishment was achieved by Lockheed Martin’s Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) on April 14, 2011. Aegis BMD was proven effective against intermediate range ballistic missiles. USS O’Kane (DDG-77, Arleigh Burke-class destroyer ) was used for the exercise. Here is how it worked. • Aegis BMD used AN/TPY-2 radar to track the missile • Using a launch-on-remote function Aegis BMD system detected the threat very early in flight • A Standard Missile was fired to destroy the inbound missile • Round of applause for Lockheed Martin What does this mean for the rest of us? It means that our US Navy ships can defend themselves more effectively expanding the battle space. There are 25 Aegis BMD-equipped ships currently deployed – 21 U.S. Navy ships and four Japanese destroyers. Three additional ships are planned to become BMD-capable this year.
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Virginia Class Submarine Summary

ATI Courses is scheduled to present technical training short course Submarines and Anti-Submarine Warfare scheduled to be presented in Columbia, MD on June 21-23, 2011.  We think our readers would be interested in the information below. Designed by Electric Boat, the Virginia-class is being built jointly under a teaming arrangement between Electric Boat and Northrop […]

ATI Courses is scheduled to present technical training short course Submarines and Anti-Submarine Warfare scheduled to be presented in Columbia, MD on June 21-23, 2011.  We think our readers would be interested in the information below.

Designed by Electric Boat, the Virginia-class is being built jointly under a teaming arrangement between Electric Boat and Northrop Grumman Newport News in Virginia. In 1998, the U.S. Navy awarded a $4.2 billion contract for the construction of the first four ships of the class. Virginia is the first of these. Displacing approximately 7,800 tons with a length of 370 feet, Virginia is longer but lighter than the previous Seawolf-class of submarines. The 132-member crew can launch Tomahawk land-attack missiles from 12 vertical launch system tubes and Mark 48 advanced capability torpedoes from four 21-inch torpedo tubes. Virginia will be able to attack targets ashore with accurate Tomahawk cruise missiles and conduct covert long-term surveillance of land areas, littoral waters or other sea forces. Other missions will conduct include anti-submarine and anti-ship warfare, special forces delivery & support, and mine delivery and minefield mapping. With enhanced communications connectivity, Virginia also will provide battle group & joint task force support, with full integration into carrier battle group operations. The Virginia-class submarines surpasses the performance of any current projected threat submarine, ensuring US undersea dominance well into the next century. The Virginia class (or SSN-774 class) of attack submarines are the first US subs to be designed for a broad spectrum of open-ocean and littoral missions around the world. They were designed as a cheaper alternative to the Cold War era Seawolf-class attack submarines, and are slated to replace aging Los Angeles class subs, seventeen of which have already been decommissioned. The Virginias incorporate several innovations. Instead of periscopes, the subs have a pair of extendable “photonics masts” outside the pressure hull. Each contains several high-resolution cameras with light-intensification and infrared sensors, an infrared laser rangefinder, and an integrated Electronic Support Measures (ESM) array. Signals from the masts’ sensors are transmitted through fiber optic data lines through signal processors to the control center. The subs also make use of pump-jet propulsors for quieter operations.

http://www.sublant.navy.mil/VirginiaClass.htm

The Guts & Go of a Team – Navy Football

The Guts & Go of a Team — “Five Star Heart Trumps Five Star Talent.” By Buddy Wellborn, N* ’59, At the Annual Navy Football Banquet, February 19, 2010. Note Captain Wellborn teaches ATI’s course Submarines and Surface Ships and Their Combat Systems June 22-24, 2010 Beltsville, MD Outgoing Captain for Navy’s 2009 Football Team, […]
The Guts & Go of a Team — “Five Star Heart Trumps Five Star Talent.” By Buddy Wellborn, N* ’59, At the Annual Navy Football Banquet, February 19, 2010. Note Captain Wellborn teaches ATI’s course Submarines and Surface Ships and Their Combat Systems June 22-24, 2010 Beltsville, MD Outgoing Captain for Navy’s 2009 Football Team, Osei Asante, N* ’10, concluded his remarks by reminding his teammates that they won together as a team because: “Five Star Heart Trumps Five Star Talent.” Sitting among my teammates of our ’57 team with the widow and family, including the grandson, of George Fritzinger, ’59, we listen intently to Navy’s football team Captain, in that he spoke about that which only those of us who have been there, done that, know: “The Guts & Go of a Team” As so related at an earlier gathering the end of last year while they were working out at Rice in Houston just before their game with Missouri in the Texas Bowl, I had seen them wearing some gold-colored undershirts with the following words inscribed in a bold navy-blue : One Heartbeat —No Regrets. To them this wasn’t some catchy phrase, or jingoistic motto, this was their credo that bonded them—like “one for all, all for one.” They knew, and their coaches knew, as we knew, that they had played with great heart to even have a chance against bigger and faster, money-motivated talent. The military service academies still play like “the way it was” in college football back in the “get-one-for-the-Gipper” days. Tom Lynch, N* ’64, as the football captain of the ’63 team was there with a contingent of his teammates that had beaten Notre Dame twice, beaten Army, but had lost to Texas in the Cotton Bowl. Greg Mather, N* ’62, was an All-American on the ’61 team that also had beaten Notre Dame twice, beaten Air Force (the inaugural game in 1960), beaten Army, but lost to Missouri in the Orange Bowl. Harry Hurst, N* ’58, headed a contingent of his teammates on the ’57 team that included Bob Caldwell, N*’58, Don Chomicz, N*’59, Maxwell Trophy winner Bob Reifsnyder, N* ’59, yours truly Buddy Wellborn, N*’59, and Tom Solak, N*’60. The ’57 team also had beaten Notre Dame twice, beat Army (in that Air Force had not been scheduled yet), AND went on to beat Rice in the Cotton Bowl—as did the ’09 team in beating Missouri in the Texas Bowl. In the 110-game (55-49-7) history of playing Army, three of the fifty-five winning Navy teams were there at the banquet. In the 83-year history of playing Notre Dame, however, only SIX teams have had players that have beaten them twice—and THREE of those teams were represented at this banquet. The three others that were not at the banquet were the ’61 team with Greg Mather, N* ’62, the ’34 team with our distinguished graduate Slade Cutter, N* ’35, and the ’36 team with Rivers Morrell, N*’37. Further, all three of these teams also had beaten Army, BUT pointedly, only TWO of those six went on to win their respective post-season bowl game—’57 and ’09. Only those two distinctly are so linked. There are no others– yet. Before the festivities, we all mingled among these current footballers of the ’09 team and their oh-so proud families. We congratulated Ricky Dobbs, N* ’11, and Wyatt Middleton, N* ’11, for being elected by their teammates to be Navy football Captains for the 2010 season. Notably, the 2009-team captains were both from Texas, whereas the 2010-team captains are both from Georgia. Good Luck to Navy’s 2010 team, which could be the greatest—yet. Harry Hurst, Navy #34 and I, Navy #33, even had our pictures taken with our numbered counterparts a half a century apart, to wit: Ram Vela #34 and Bobby Doyle #33. They asked about our season, and how we played then. We related that we played as they had—for one another. We did so for the same reason—that is, we didn’t want to let down a teammate by not doing our job. The old adage is: “Let others do their job, while you focus on doing yours.” Sometimes it seems that we all are just marching through life following the man in front of us, and trying not to trip and fall on his bayonet—or on our own. I often have wondered about into what one morphs while surviving the rigors at a military academy. Like, what affect does all those statues, memorials, sayings, quotes, mottos, long tales and short tales of days gone by those that have passed through those hallowed halls before you actually had on you? One might conclude that the “theys” just expected you to “…carefully and diligently discharge the duties of the office to which appointed by doing and performing all manner of things thereunto belonging.” Notably, no where in that commission does it stipulate that you should be “an officer and a gentleman,” just for you to do that for which you were appointed. Seemingly, it was sometime later that we came to realize that in those halls and in that yard—and, “On these fields of friendly strife are sown the seeds that on other fields on other days will reap the fruits of victory.” It was then, when you stood up exhausted, wiping the snot off your nose, spit the blood out of your mouth, and overlooked the dirt and hurt to yell, “Yeaaaaaa!” Then you knew on that field, on that day, you had won. You could see it, hear it, smell it, feel it– you even could taste it. Yes, you had won, but all knew that it was WE that had won that day as one—THE ONE! Navy Football—A Proud Tradition.

War Over The Whales: The Navy insists underwater warfare range won’t hurt rare right whales off Florida coast

Miami Herald September 10, 2009 By Curtis Morgan Every winter endangered North Atlantic right whales migrate to warm, shallow waters to give birth and nurse their young. That’s right next to where the U.S. Navy wants to conduct antisubmarine training. Florida isn’t known for whale watching, but every winter the coastline offers a haven for […]
Miami Herald September 10, 2009 By Curtis Morgan Every winter endangered North Atlantic right whales migrate to warm, shallow waters to give birth and nurse their young. That’s right next to where the U.S. Navy wants to conduct antisubmarine training. Florida isn’t known for whale watching, but every winter the coastline offers a haven for endangered North Atlantic right whales. They migrate to warm, shallow waters to give birth and nurse little — relatively speaking — one-ton bundles of blubber. That’s right next to where the U.S. Navy wants to conduct antisubmarine training. The Navy has selected a site bordering a federally protected whale nursery stretching from Savannah to Sebastian for an undersea warfare range, where ships, submarines and aircraft outfitted with powerful sonar can practice hunting subs. Citing voluminous studies, the Navy concluded that training 58 miles off Jacksonville would rarely, and barely, disturb right whales. Environmentalists say the Navy has soft-pedaled risks from the 500-square-mile range. Ship strikes already rank as the top right whale killer. The Navy also intends to heavily employ sonar that can disrupt feeding and communication, cause hearing damage and — in extreme cases — trigger mass strandings such as one in the Bahamas that killed six beaked whales in 2000. “It’s one of the worst possible places,” said Catherine Wannamaker, an attorney for the Southern Environmental Law Center, one of 21 groups that contested the choice. “It’s right next to the calving grounds for one of the rarest whales in the world.” The groups contend that the range poses a disruptive, potentially deadly threat to a whale population numbering no more than 400 — and that’s after producing 39 calves last year, the most in decades. Florida and Georgia environmental regulators have raised similar concerns. Navy is moving ahead because Florida’s location and logistics beat sites off South Carolina, North Carolina and Maryland. Jacksonville boasts a seaport, air base and submarine base across the St. Mary’s River in King’s Bay, Ga. The Navy already has a deep-water sonar range in the Bahamas, but Julie Ripley, the Navy’s environmental spokeswoman, said the shallow sea floor and busy shipping lanes off northeast Florida provide a real-world test for sonar operators who must pinpoint a new generation of stealthier subs. Environmentalists, who have been battling the Navy for years over sonar, argue that it’s the whales that are perishable. Though there are signs of slow recovery, scientists consider their future precarious. The whales take a decade to hit sexual maturity. Females produce one calf a year, so losing one prematurely can set back recovery. Ship strikes are such a serious concern — 22 whales were hit between 1999 and 2006, with 13 confirmed deaths — that the fisheries service last year imposed seasonal zones limiting large vessels to 10 knots in whale habitat. The Navy — involved in roughly one-sixth of 134 documented strikes over 60 years — was exempted. Factoring in total sea hours, the service calculated the chance of any Navy ship hitting a whale in any year at .0000472 percent. The chances of not doing it: 99.99 percent. While whales have been spotted 60 miles out where the range is planned, past surveys — which environmentalists consider inadequate — suggest that most swim relatively close to shore, some 30 miles from where the Navy plans to train. The Navy, which adopted whale-avoidance policies in 2002, also has proposed more precautions during calving season — posted lookouts, daytime training and exercising “extreme caution” in ship speed and sonar power. But environmentalists remain skeptical, pointing to a series of strikes that have killed whales since 2000, including six pregnant females. Then there is the complex question of sonar. For the Navy, it’s critical protection for military vessels and shipping lanes — particularly mid-frequency active systems that emit “pings” of powerful sound, measuring echoes to identify and track targets. There is no dispute that active sonar can disturb whales and dolphins. They rely on echolocation, their own internal sonar, to navigate and hunt, and use an array of calls or “songs” to communicate. But research — much of it bankrolled by $20 million a year from the Navy — shows widely varying impacts, depending on species and sonar levels. Animals can leave an area, possibly under stress, or abandon feeding or breeding. Some studies indicate that repeated exposure can cause temporary hearing loss. In the worst cases, fleeing whales and dolphins beach in mass, often fatal, strandings. The Navy, in a 2001 study after 17 whales and a dolphin beached in the Bahamas, acknowledged that its mid-frequency sonar played a role, but also pointed to an unusual confluence of other factors. Necropsies of whales that beached in the Canary Islands in 2002 during international naval exercises showed brain hemorrhages, vascular ruptures and lung congestion. One theory is that they bolt from depths so quickly their organs can’t handle rapid pressure changes — akin to the “bends,” or embolisms that divers suffer when surfacing too quickly. As a concession to state concerns, the Navy agreed not to lay fiber-optic cable and transducers during calving season, which runs from mid-November to mid-April. Wannamaker said it would resolve many concerns if the Navy made the same pledge for sonar training. The Navy responded that option has “been given consideration” but that they want to retain “flexibility.” Wannamaker said the groups are pondering a lawsuit, not trusting that more studies and surveys will sway the final decision. “Once you build a $100 million project,” she said, “nobody is going to tell them they can’t use it.” Full story here.