Requirements Development & Management

Course length:

3 Days



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One of the most significant impacts a systems engineer can have on a project is to ensure the successful identification, analysis, allocation, management, and use of requirements. This course provides both lecture and practical work on the creation and use of requirements in a system development from concept to verification

The three-day course begins with an overview of the purpose and use of requirements. We identify the possible sources of requirements, and how to define and validate requirements from each type of source. We teach how to write requirements, with practical hands-on practice on each type of requirement. We also focus on the entire set of requirements, with methods to graphically analyze the requirements to ensure completeness, correctness, and cohesion. We teach requirements allocation, how to decompose high-level requirements into lower-level requirements that create meaningful practical specifications for the system components. We show how to use requirements to guide system verification. Finally, we look at the structure and tools for requirements management, to ensure that all requirements are met and that non-required features are not created.

The proper use of requirements is one of the core tools of complex systems engineering. From beginning to verification, good systems engineers use requirements as the primary definition for the system and its elements, to help the product system:


  • Meet the operational and customer needs
  • Fit within the intended system environment
  • Provide sufficient robustness and reliability
  • Offer appropriate flexibility
  • Meet the entire life cycle

What You Will Learn:

  • All the methods in collaborative work
  • Define and quantify the operation need
  • Write requirements
  • Graphical Requirements analysis
  • Allocate the requirements into an architecture
  • Plan verification

Course Outline:

  1. Requirements Overview
    • What are requirements and how do they fit in to system development?
    • Context of system development models.
    • Role of requirements.
    • Importance of requirements.
    • Requirements cycles for contracted, R&D, and commercial development
    • Problem definition with the stakeholders
    • System boundaries and life cycle
    • System environment
    • Define the need in operational terms.
    • What to do with the operational descriptions.
    • Quantify the need to allow effective trade offs.
    • Application of SysML diagrams for operational definition.
    • Five types of requirements and the characteristics of each type: functional, performance, interface, constraint, and verification requirements
    • Create functional and performance requirements using mission analysis as an engineering technique.
    • Interface requirements as a definition of system boundaries; how to create them
    • Constraint requirements on the system, its environment, and its development.
    • Verification requirements as the basis for system proof, including the Requirements Verification Matrix (RVM).
    • Requirements document types – specifications, use cases, agile, SCRUM
    • Formal requirements writing rules from the INCOSE Requirements Writing Guide.
    • Working with requirements interactions
    • Diagramming techniques to evaluate sets of requirements
    • Useful SysML diagrams: use case, activity, state machine diagrams. Strengths and weakness of each diagram.
    • Overview of system architecture and how requirements are used to define components
    • Allocation methods with examples – direct allocation, apportionment, derivation
    • Application of allocation methods to different types of high-level requirements
    • Architectural design using requirements
    • Requirements management methods; when to do what tasks.
    • Feedback to the system development so that requirements act as the guide.
    • Ensuring the system meets all requirements and does not add unnecessary functions
    • How to use managed requirements to plan and perform system verificationAttributes of requirements management databases
    • Survey of requirements management tools
    • Simple management in Excel
    • Defining the need
    • Converting stakeholder requirements to technical requirements
    • Writing good requirements
    • Requirements analysis
    • Requirements allocation
  1. Stakeholder Requirements. Defining the system at its highest level, in terms of the stakeholder needs. The basic steps in understanding a new system.
  1. Defining Requirements. How to convert operational descriptions into technical requirements.
  1. Requirements Analysis. Methods to validate requirements to ensure that systems requirements are complete, coherent, and cohesive.
  1. Requirements Allocation. Requirements as engineering tools during the system architecting and design phases.
  1. Requirements Management. Using a requirements database to allow requirements to guide the design
  1. Case Study. Small-group study of a virtual development project in five segments to apply the learned methods


William “Bill” Fournier is Principal Acquisition Systems Engineering with over 35 years of experience. Mr. Fournier taught DoD Systems Engineering full time for over three years at DSMC/DAU as a Professor of Engineering Management. Mr. Fournier has taught Systems Engineering at least part time for more than the last 25 years. Mr. Fournier holds a MBA and BS Industrial Engineering / Operations Research and is DOORS trained. He is a certified CSEP, CSEP DoD Acquisition, LSS GB and XPMP. He is a contributor to DAU/DSMC, defense contractor internal Systems Engineering Courses and Process, and INCOSE publications. Currently, He Is working for DoD Mission Engineering / Systems Engineering office supporting Space and Missile Defense Programs. Bill has written and assessed ~20 SEP/SEMPs.


Mr. Glen Francisco (CSEP, PMP) received his Engineering Bachelor’s degree Aero/Astro Engineering from RPI (Troy NY) in ‘75, Engineering MS Aero/Astro Engineering from MIT (Cambridge MA) in ‘76 and MBA Information & Business Technology from FIT (Melbourne FL) in ‘86.

Mr. Francisco’s professional work career began in 1976 working for McDonnell Aircraft Company (Boeing) in St. Louis as a GN&C Engineer, in 1980 for Martin Marietta (Lockheed) in Orlando as a Systems Engineer and then in 1995 for TI DSEG in Dallas as a Systems Project Engineer. Mr. Francisco then worked for Raytheon SAS & NCS from 1999 – 2005, L-3 Communications from 2005 – 2008 in Dallas TX as a Systems Project Manager and then from 2008 – 2013 at DRS in Dallas as a Senior Project Engineering Director. Mr. Francisco worked for Knight Enterprises in Titusville FL from 2013 – 2018 as Director of Programs with Program Management Office and Senior Leadership responsibilities. Glen currently works for BAE Systems in Austin TX as Systems Engineering Chief responsible for managing an EO/IR team.

Mr. Francisco has supported military programs for the U.S. Army, Navy, Air-Force and Marines since 1976 as well as developed products for domestic & international commercial markets to include Instrumentation, Automotive, Aviation, Firefighting, Police, Law Enforcement and Security Surveillance since 2000.

Mr. Francisco remains certified as a practicing PMI PMP and INCOSE CSEP, as well as an ASIS certified Security CPP. He also is a National Registry EMT First Responder Medic and Commissioned Firefighter, Driver/Operator and Firefighter Instructor I & II. As a Commissioned Instructor, Mr. Francisco has demonstrated his proficiency of material knowledge, material development and dynamic presentation techniques to train others as well as creating classroom didactic and practical hands-on training techniques meeting specific learning objectives and teaching materials that can be effectively used by other instructors. Mr. Francisco has served as a staff Instructor to multiple local, county, state and federal agencies/facilities for over 18 years serving as a recognized practitioner, researcher, consultant and instructor successfully crossing the chasm between paid career and volunteer professionals.

Mr. Francisco was selected in the 2006 Marquis Publication of Who’s Who in America. Mr. Francisco has presented over a dozen papers at multiple symposium venues. He holds multiple patents in active terminal guidance missile trajectory control, low cost plastic thermal management, clip-on weapon sight technologies and more. He assisted in the development & introduction of thermal imaging cameras into the firefighting market in 2001, a technology still saving thousands of lives and millions of dollars in property.

In 2004 Mr. Francisco joined the Law Enforcement Thermographers Association (LETA), a 501(c)3 nonprofit, and was certified as a LETA Instructor in 2006 to teach in-service first responders to become certified Thermographers to safely and effectively perform their lifecycle duties using multiple types of imaging technology. In 2016 Mr. Francisco joined the LETA Board of Directors to help develop, execute and guide an integrated and standardized model based knowledge learning approach between Government Agencies (such as NIST, NFPA and ISO), Fire Service, Law Enforcement, Safety and Security markets.


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