TORPEDOS LOS! -The Efficacy of Submarine Warships.

SUBMARINE TASKING. Pursuant to mission accomplishment in support of national policies, and in particular for a duly delineated national armed-force objective to “Project National Power,” submarines can be tasked to launch land-attack cruise-missiles from international waters– as directed unilaterally by our National Command Authority, NCA. Submarines can be tasked to conduct surveillance and reconnaissance operations […]
SUBMARINE TASKING. Pursuant to mission accomplishment in support of national policies, and in particular for a duly delineated national armed-force objective to “Project National Power,” submarines can be tasked to launch land-attack cruise-missiles from international waters– as directed unilaterally by our National Command Authority, NCA. Submarines can be tasked to conduct surveillance and reconnaissance operations inside and outside the battle space, covertly.  In that same vein, submarines can be tasked to insert, and, or retract Special Operating Forces, SOF, on the littoral shores of the world’s oceans– covertly. In more poignant warfare scenarios, submarines can be tasked to mine sea-lane choke points as well as enemy harbors. Moreover, and perhaps most particular, submarines can hunt and kill other opposing submarines in the same undersea medium with them.  Besides the deep ocean, that undersea medium includes the shallow waters for our coastal defense as well as that for projecting US national power by amphibious forces in foreign waters. Notwithstanding the brassy jingoism above, submarines were first procured to sink threatening warships by surprising them from below the sea with the numbing sting of a torpedo.  For over a hundred years now, submarines have been so tasked; and, since WWI, submarines have been tasked to interdict sea lanes and sink unarmed merchant ships to deny re-supply.  Yes, VIRGINIA, an economic strangler lurks in the seaSubmarines Sink Ships! When SEAWOLFconceptualized in the painting above—was launched in 1995, there were some 24,000 merchant ships of over 1,000 gross-registered-tons plying the sea lanes of the world for international trade and transport.  For national comparison, a table of Merchant Fleets of the World, ranked by number of oceangoing vessels, is provided below delineating a grand total of their displacements as about 657-million dwt (deadweight tons). As capital-intensive assets—meaning their annual amortized construction cost and operating expense well exceed the cost of labor to operate them—their collective loan-value, without any consigned cargo, can be estimated parametrically to total about $1.5-trillion.  Moreover, the annualized value of their consigned cargo that they deliver each year can be estimated to total about $3.0-trillion. Ask yourself which of these national economies today could stay afloat with the sunk cost of its Merchant Fleet? And today, with near instantaneous news around the world, when the first explosion from a submarine-launched torpedo plumes brusquely, so will ocean-shipping insurance rates. In regard to fleet operations, submarines can be tasked to provide INDIRECT, ASSOCIATED, and DIRECT Battle Group support.  For deployments, Time-On-Station for modern nuclear-powered submarines is dependent only on the amount of food they must carry to feed their crew—like, a 90-day supply, without replenishment. Some submarine-patrol stations literally are On the Far Side.  For instance, our forward submarine base on Guam in the western Pacific is about 12 days of submerged steaming from San Diego.  Then for a submerged transit from Guam to a patrol station in the Gulf of Oman via the Java Sea and the Lombok Straits thence across the Indian Ocean could take as long as 16 days. Continue to read here: https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/11/the-evolution-of-a-submarine-as-a-warship/ https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/11/the-advent-of-submarine-warfare/  
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Did You “Hear” About the Underwater Acoustical Courses at ATI?

Video Clip: Click to Watch Maybe Being “Underwater” is a Good Thing?   Since 1984, the Applied Technology Institute (ATI) has provided leading-edge public courses and onsite technical training. Whether you are a busy engineer, a technical expert or a project manager, you can enhance your understanding of complex acoustical systems in a short time. […]
Acoustic simulation in a simple ocean environment
Video Clip: Click to Watch Maybe Being “Underwater” is a Good Thing?   Since 1984, the Applied Technology Institute (ATI) has provided leading-edge public courses and onsite technical training. Whether you are a busy engineer, a technical expert or a project manager, you can enhance your understanding of complex acoustical systems in a short time. Why not take a short course? ATI short courses are less than a week long and are designed to help you keep your professional knowledge up-to-date. Our courses provide a practical overview of acoustical technologies which provide a strong foundation for understanding the issues that must be confronted in the use, design and development of such complex systems. The three courses below present the fundamentals of underwater acoustic analysis and modeling, which deals with the translation of our physical understanding of sound in the sea into mathematical formulas solvable by computers. The courses provide a comprehensive treatment of all types of underwater acoustic models including environmental, propagation, noise, reverberation and sonar performance models. ATI’S UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC SYSTEM ANALYSIS COURSE This four-day course is based upon the text Underwater Acoustic System Analysis by William Burdic. The course presents the fundamentals of underwater acoustics, acoustic signal generation and acoustic signal processing in sufficient depth to permit the analysis and optimization of the performance of underwater systems. The sonar systems include a variety of applications including active and passive detection of surface and sub-surface targets, acoustic communications, acoustic intercept and underwater depth sounders. The course will stress the required skills and techniques for system analysis and performance prediction. Course Outline: • Introduction to Sonar Analysis: Historical overview; important acoustical properties and characteristics; Acoustical Waves; Reflections and Refraction in the Ocean; Units and db. • Sound Propagation In The Ocean: Sound Speed Variation in the ocean with variation in temperature, depth, salinity; Geographic Variation; Acoustic bottom and surface losses; absorption losses; Typical propagation modes; surface layer; shallow channels; deep channels; convergence zones; RAP; Typical Propagation Curves. • Ambient Noise in the Ocean: Sources of noise; shipping; wind generated; thermal; others; Noise spectra; ambient noise angular distribution and correlation properties; use of the spatial correlation function in system calculations. • Target Characteristics: Passive signature sources including propulsion, propeller, auxiliary machinery, flow-induced noise; effect of self-generated noise on sonar performance; Target strength for mono-static and bi-static sonars; Reverberation from volume, surface and bottom. • Acoustic Transducers: Definitions, piezo-ceramic properties; Hydrophone configurations; equivalent circuits and sensitivity; Projector configurations, equivalent circuits, efficiency and operation. • Beamforming-Spatial Filtering: Purpose and types of beamforming; spatial filters, multi-element arrays, array shading functions; beam steering; gain of arrays in distributed noise; angle estimation. • Performance Analysis-Statistical Basis: Hypothesis testing and optimum detection processors for active and passive systems; ROC curves; Estimation of time delay, frequency and bearing. • Performance Analysis: Practical examples; Examples illustrating the analysis of sonar systems; passive narrowband and broadband detection; passive angle tracking and ranging; High-power system detection for multipath reverberation and noise-limited conditions with Doppler Processing. Your Instructors for this Course: William Burdic received his BS and MS at Oregon State University. He served as an instructor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Oregon State University when he joined Rockwell International. He has been engaged in the analysis and design of advanced radar and sonar systems. He is the author of two books “Radar Signal Analysis” and “Underwater Acoustic System Analysis”. James W. Jenkins joined the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in 1970 and has worked in ASW and sonar systems analysis. He has worked with system studies and at-sea testing with passive and active systems. He is currently a senior physicist investigating improved signal processing systems, APB, own-ship monitoring, and SSBN sonar. He has taught sonar and continuing education courses since 1977 and is the Director of the Applied Technology Institute (ATI). ATI’S UNDERWATER ACOUSTICS 201 COURSE This two-day course explains how to translate our physical understanding of sound in the sea into mathematical formulas solvable by computers. It provides a comprehensive treatment of all types of underwater acoustic models including environmental, propagation, noise, reverberation and sonar performance models. Specific examples of each type of model are discussed to illustrate model formulations, assumptions and algorithm efficiency. Guidelines for selecting and using available propagation, noise and reverberation models are highlighted. Demonstrations illustrate the proper execution and interpretation of PC-based sonar models. Each student will receive a copy of Underwater Acoustic Modeling and Simulation by Paul C. Etter, in addition to a complete set of lecture notes. Your Instructor for this Course: Paul C. Etter has worked in the fields of ocean-atmosphere physics and environmental acoustics for the past thirty-five years supporting federal and state agencies, academia and private industry. He received his BS degree in Physics and his MS degree in Oceanography at Texas A&M University. Mr. Etter served on active duty in the U.S. Navy as an Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Officer aboard frigates. He is the author or co-author of more than 180 technical reports and professional papers addressing environmental measurement technology, underwater acoustics and physical oceanography. Mr. Etter is the author of the textbook Underwater Acoustic Modeling and Simulation (3rd edition). Course Outline: • Introduction. Nature of acoustical measurements and prediction. Modern developments in physical and mathematical modeling. Diagnostic versus prognostic applications. Latest developments in inverse-acoustic sensing of the oceans. • The Ocean as an Acoustic Medium. Distribution of physical and chemical properties in the oceans. Sound-speed calculation, measurement and distribution. Surface and bottom boundary conditions. Effects of circulation patterns, fronts, eddies and fine-scale features on acoustics. Biological effects. • Propagation. Basic concepts, boundary interactions, attenuation and absorption. Ducting phenomena including surface ducts, sound channels, convergence zones, shallow-water ducts and Arctic half-channels. Theoretical basis for propagation modeling. Frequency-domain wave equation formulations including ray theory, normal mode, multipath expansion, fast field (wavenumber integration) and parabolic approximation techniques. Model summary tables. Data support requirements. Specific examples. • Noise. Noise sources and spectra. Depth dependence and directionality. Slope-conversion effects. Theoretical basis for noise modeling. Ambient noise and beam-noise statistics models. Pathological features arising from inappropriate assumptions. Model summary tables. Data support requirements. Specific examples. • Reverberation. Volume and boundary scattering. Shallow-water and under-ice reverberation features. Theoretical basis for reverberation modeling. Cell scattering and point scattering techniques. Bistatic reverberation formulations and operational restrictions. Model summary tables. Data support requirements. Specific examples. • Sonar Performance Models. Sonar equations. Monostatic and bistatic geometries. Model operating systems. Model summary tables. Data support requirements. Sources of oceanographic and acoustic data. Specific examples. • Simulation. Review of simulation theory including advanced methodologies and infrastructure tools. • Demonstrations. Guided demonstrations illustrate proper execution and interpretation of PC-based monostatic and bistatic sonar models. ATI’S UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC MODELING AND SIMULATION COURSE The subject of underwater acoustic modeling deals with the translation of our physical understanding of sound in the sea into mathematical formulas solvable by computers. This course provides a comprehensive treatment of all types of underwater acoustic models including environmental, propagation, noise, reverberation and sonar performance models. Specific examples of each type of model are discussed to illustrate model formulations, assumptions and algorithm efficiency. Guidelines for selecting and using available propagation, noise and reverberation models are highlighted. Problem sessions allow students to exercise PC-based propagation and active sonar models. Each student will receive a copy of Underwater Acoustic Modeling and Simulation by Paul C. Etter (a $250 value) in addition to a complete set of lecture notes. View course sample for this course Your Instructor for this Course: Paul C. Etter has worked in the fields of ocean-atmosphere physics and environmental acoustics for the past thirty years supporting federal and state agencies, academia and private industry. He received his BS degree in Physics and his MS degree in Oceanography at Texas A&M University. Mr. Etter served on active duty in the U.S. Navy as an Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Officer aboard frigates. He is the author or co-author of more than 140 technical reports and professional papers addressing environmental measurement technology, underwater acoustics and physical oceanography. Mr. Etter is the author of the textbook Underwater Acoustic Modeling and Simulation. Course Outline: • Introduction. Nature of acoustical measurements and prediction. Modern developments in physical and mathematical modeling. Diagnostic versus prognostic applications. Latest developments in acoustic sensing of the oceans. • The Ocean as an Acoustic Medium. Distribution of physical and chemical properties in the oceans. Sound-speed calculation, measurement and distribution. Surface and bottom boundary conditions. Effects of circulation patterns, fronts, eddy and fine-scale features on acoustics. Biological effects. • Propagation. Observations and Physical Models. Basic concepts, boundary interactions, attenuation and absorption. Shear-wave effects in the sea floor and ice cover. Ducting phenomena including surface ducts, sound channels, convergence zones, shallow-water ducts and Arctic half-channels. Spatial and temporal coherence. Mathematical Models. Theoretical basis for propagation modeling. Frequency-domain wave equation formulations including ray theory, normal mode, multipath expansion, fast field and parabolic approximation techniques. New developments in shallow-water and under-ice models. Domains of applicability. Model summary tables. Data support requirements. Specific examples (PE and RAYMODE). References. Demonstrations. • Noise. Observations and Physical Models. Noise sources and spectra. Depth dependence and directionality. Slope-conversion effects. Mathematical Models. Theoretical basis for noise modeling. Ambient noise and beam-noise statistics models. Pathological features arising from inappropriate assumptions. Model summary tables. Data support requirements. Specific example (RANDI-III). References. • Reverberation. Observations and Physical Models. Volume and boundary scattering. Shallow-water and under-ice reverberation features. Mathematical Models. Theoretical basis for reverberation modeling. Cell scattering and point scattering techniques. Bistatic reverberation formulations and operational restrictions. Data support requirements. Specific examples (REVMOD and Bistatic Acoustic Model). References. • Sonar Performance Models. Sonar equations. Model operating systems. Model summary tables. Data support requirements. Sources of oceanographic and acoustic data. Specific examples (NISSM and Generic Sonar Model). References. • Modeling and Simulation. Review of simulation theory including advanced methodologies and infrastructure tools. Overview of engineering, engagement, mission and theater level models. Discussion of applications in concept evaluation, training and resource allocation. • Modern Applications in Shallow Water and Inverse Acoustic Sensing. Stochastic modeling, broadband and time-domain modeling techniques, matched field processing, acoustic tomography, coupled ocean-acoustic modeling, 3D modeling, and chaotic metrics. • Model Evaluation. Guidelines for model evaluation and documentation. Analytical benchmark solutions. Theoretical and operational limitations. Verification, validation and accreditation. Examples. • Demonstrations and Problem Sessions. Demonstration of PC-based propagation and active sonar models. Hands-on problem sessions and discussion of results.
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ATI Offers Advanced Courses Sonar and Submarine Engineering

Do you Need Active or Passive Sonar? Video Clip: Click to Watch Advanced Topics in Underwater Acoustics and Warfare From active versus passive sonar to nuclear versus diesel submarines; how are you keeping up with the latest advances in underwater acoustics and warfare? These two four-day short courses summarize both basic and “leading-edge” topics. In each […]
Do you Need Active or Passive Sonar?
Do you Need Active or Passive Sonar?
Video Clip: Click to Watch
Advanced Topics in Underwater Acoustics and Warfare
From active versus passive sonar to nuclear versus diesel submarines; how are you keeping up with the latest advances in underwater acoustics and warfare?
These two four-day short courses summarize both basic and “leading-edge” topics. In each class, the basics principles are reviewed and then current achievements and challenges are addressed. The aim of the instructors is to make available practical results and lessons-learned in a tutorial form suitable for a broad range of people working in underwater acoustics and warfare. The course is designed for sonar systems engineers, combat systems engineers and undersea warfare professionals who wish to enhance their understanding and become familiar with the “big picture”. Why not take a short course from ATI?
Since 1984, the Applied Technology Institute (ATI) has provided leading-edge public courses and onsite technical training. ATI short courses are less than a week long and are designed to help you keep your professional knowledge up-to-date. Our courses provide a practical overview of space and defense technologies which provide a strong foundation for understanding the issues that must be confronted in the use, regulation and development of complex systems. Whether you are a busy engineer, a technical expert or a project manager, you can enhance your understanding of complex systems in a short time. You will become aware of the basic vocabulary essential to interact meaningfully with your colleagues. Course Outline, Samplers, and Notes These two advanced courses provide an in-depth treatment, taught by experts in the field, of the latest results in a selection of core topics of underwater acoustics and warfare. After attending either of these courses, you will receive a full set of detailed notes from the class for future reference, as well as a certificate of completion. Please visit our website for more valuable information. ATI’S ADVANCED TOPICS IN UNDERWATER ACOUSTICS COURSE Course Objectives: • Provide a general understanding of ocean acoustics and sonar principles • Make attendees conversant with all aspects of ocean acoustics and sonar technology, engineering and performance assessment in the context of naval applications. • Provide detailed, critical knowledge for understanding of basic concepts in ocean acoustics, physics and modeling, transduction technology and engineering, processing for sonar signal detection and estimation, and sonar system design and performance assessment. • Provide understanding of the design, development and use of the acoustic propagation modeling software. • Provide information and perspectives on new and emerging sonar technology and techniques and new sonar system configurations and functions. ATI’S ADVANCED UNDERSEA WARFARE COURSE Advanced Undersea Warfare (USW) covers the latest information about submarine employment in future conflicts. The course is taught by a leading innovator in submarine tactics. The roles, capabilities and future developments of submarines in littoral warfare are emphasized. The technology and tactics of modern nuclear and diesel submarines are discussed. The importance of stealth, mobility, and firepower for submarine missions are illustrated by historical and projected roles of submarines. Differences between nuclear and diesel submarines are reviewed. Submarine sensors (sonar, ELINT, visual) and weapons (torpedoes, missiles, mines, special forces) are presented. Advanced USW gives you a wealth of practical knowledge about the latest issues and tactics in submarine warfare. The course provides the necessary background to understand the employment of submarines in the current world environment. This short course is valuable to engineers and scientists who are working in R&D, or in testing of submarine systems. It provides the knowledge and perspective to understand advanced USW in shallow water and regional conflicts. Determine for yourself the value of this course before you sign up. Slide Sampler USW#1 Slide Sampler USW #2 About ATI and the Instructors Our mission here at ATI is to provide expert training and the highest quality professional development in space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, and signal processing. We are not a one-size-fits-all educational facility. Our short classes include both introductory and advanced courses. ATI’s instructors are world-class experts who are the best in the business. They are carefully selected for their ability to clearly explain advanced technology. ATI’s Advanced Topics In Underwater Acoustics Course Instructors Dr. Duncan Sheldon earned his PhD Degree in 1969. He has over twenty-five years’ experience in the field of active sonar signal processing. His experience includes real-time direction at sea of surface sonar assets during ‘free-play’ NATO ASW exercises. He was also a sonar supervisor during controlled and ‘free-play’ NATO ASW exercises. Paul C. Etter has worked in the fields of ocean-atmosphere physics and environmental acoustics for the past thirty- five years supporting federal and state agencies, academia and private industry. He is the author or co-author of more than 180 technical reports and professional papers addressing environmental measurement technology, underwater acoustics and physical oceanography. Mr. Etter is the author of the textbook Underwater Acoustic Modeling and Simulation (3rd edition). Dr. Harold “Bud” Vincent has served on active duty on fast attack and ballistic missile submarines, worked at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, and conducted advanced R&D in the defense industry. Dr. Vincent received the M.S. and Ph.D. in Ocean Engineering (Underwater Acoustics) from the University of Rhode Island. His teaching and research encompasses underwater acoustic systems, communications, signal processing, ocean instrumentation, and navigation. He has been awarded four patents for undersea systems and algorithms. Dr. John P. Ianniello received his Ph. D. Degree in Physical Oceanography from the University of Connecticut in 1977. He has been a member of the Underwater Acoustics Signal Processing Committee of the IEEE Signal Processing Society since 1980. He has received a number of awards including the American Society of Naval Engineers Solberg Award for Individual Research in 1998, and the Department of the Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Award in 2000. His recent research has specialized in the processing of array data from Autonomous Undersea Vehicles. ATI’s Advanced Undersea Warfare Course Instructors Capt. James Patton (USN ret.) is President of Submarine Tactics and Technology, Inc. and is considered a leading innovator of pro- and anti-submarine warfare and naval tactical doctrine. His 30 years of experience includes actively consulting on submarine weapons, advanced combat systems, and other stealth warfare-related issues to over 30 industrial and government entities. Commodore Bhim Uppal former Director of Submarines for the Indian Navy and he is now a consultant with American Systems Corporation. He has direct experience onboard FOXTROT, KILO, and Type 1500 diesel electric submarines. He has over 25 years of experience in diesel submarines with the Indian Navy and can provide a unique insight into the thinking, strategies, and tactics of foreign submarines. He helped purchase and evaluate Type 1500 and KILO diesel submarines. Times, Dates, and Locations Either of these courses can be scheduled on-site at your facility. For the times, dates and locations of all of our short courses, please access our schedule.


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Does Sonar Testing Causes Whales To Beach Themselves?

The new concrete evidence was recently published by Peter Tyack of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the PLos One journal. Dr. Tyack and his colleagues describe a study in the Bahamas where they used underwater microphones to monitor “clicks” emitted by Blainville’s beaked whales while hunting. The whales that were hunting around Navy’s test […]
The new concrete evidence was recently published by Peter Tyack of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the PLos One journal. Dr. Tyack and his colleagues describe a study in the Bahamas where they used underwater microphones to monitor “clicks” emitted by Blainville’s beaked whales while hunting. The whales that were hunting around Navy’s test range started to emit fewer “clicks” as soon as the sonar exercises began and then swam away miles away from the sound. They did return to the same spot a few days later. The problem is that sometimes the whales are unable to get out of the way of sonar quickly enough. The mid-frequency sonar blasts may drive certain whales to change their dive patters in a way their bodies can’t handle, causing fatal injuries. In fact, many of the beached whales have suffered physical trauma, including bleeding around brain, ears and other tissues. These are symptoms similar to “the bends”- the condition that can kill scuba divers if they surface too quickly. On the occasions listed below testing of mid-frequency to low-frequency active sonar was conducted in the area.
  • 1996: 12 Cuvier’s beaked whales beached in Greece
  • 1999: 4 beaked whales beached in the US Virgin Islands
  • 2000: 3 beaked whales beached in Madeira
  • 2002: 14 different whales beached in the Canary Islands
http://news.discovery.com/animals/navy-sonar-scares-whales-110323.html
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The USS Virginia – America’s Newest Nuclear Sub

By Captain Ray Wellborn, Instructor, Applied Technology Institute On July 4, 2004, the U.S. Navy commissioned the lead ship in a new class of nuclear-powered attack sub-marine: USS VIRGINIA (SSN 774). The new submarine warship is 377 feet in length, 34 feet in the beam, has a draft of 30.5 feet at the designer’s waterline […]
By Captain Ray Wellborn, Instructor, Applied Technology Institute On July 4, 2004, the U.S. Navy commissioned the lead ship in a new class of nuclear-powered attack sub-marine: USS VIRGINIA (SSN 774). The new submarine warship is 377 feet in length, 34 feet in the beam, has a draft of 30.5 feet at the designer’s waterline and displaces 7,800 dead weight tons submerged. She can accommodate a ship’s company of 134 including 14 officers. VIRGINIA’s length-to-breadth ratio of 11.09 is com-parable to an 11.01 for LOS ANGELES-Class submarines with a 33-foot beam, and is somewhat more than SEAWOLF’s 8.4 with a 42-foot beam, but a little less than Ohio’s 13.3, also with a 42-foot beam. Officially, the U.S. Nary will neither confirm nor deny any U.S. submarine’s speed to be greater than 20 knots, nor any test-depth to be greater than 400 feet. According to open liter- attire, however, VIRGINIA is powered by a S9G pressurized water reactor, made by General Electric, which will not require re-coring for the life of the ship./ Her propulsion plant is rated to produce 40,000 shaft horsepower for a single shaft, and sustain a maximum rated submerged speed of 34 knots. The wall-thickness and diameter of VIRGINIA’s inner pressure hull of cold- rolled, high-yield strength steel, with scrupulously designed hull-penetrations and conscientious seam-welds, allows submarine design engineers to impose a safe-diving test-depth of 1,600 feet. Furthermore, this innovative design reduces the number of needed hull-penetrations with eight non-hull penetrating antennae packages. To meet yet another top-level requirement VIRGINIA is fitted with SEAWOLF-level acoustic quietness for stealth, as well as acoustic tile cladding for active acoustic signal absorption. For additional tasking, VIRGINIA is fitted with an integral nine-man lockout chamber for use with the Advanced SEAL (sea, air and land) Delivery System (ASDS), which essentially is a mini-submarine capable of dry-delivery of a SEAL team. Moreover, the internal torpedo magazine space arrangement can be adapted to provide 2,400 cubic feet of space for up to 40 SEAL team members arid their equipment. And, VIRGINIA is capable of carrying and operating advanced unmanned underwater vehicles, wake-homing detection equipment and a deployable active hi-static sonar source. VIRGINIA is an extremely capable submarine and, in the hands of a well- trained, experienced ship’s company skilled in the operational arts of submarine warfare, has an incisive ability for both deep-ocean and shallow- water operations of all kinds, including antisubmarine warfare. So, for comparison to early strivings for more precise navigation on the open sea, consider the most sophisticated state-of-the art computer-data processors, which precisely calculate the output of an absolutely ingenious arrangement of gyros and accelerometers as they sense the slightest nano-scale movement. This ever-so-precise, self-contained navigational system is fitfully named SINS, the Ship’s Inertial Navigation System. In the modem era, the encapsulated inner workings of SINS can be held in the palm of your hands. But, at the top of the list, are the technological advancements resident in the Common Submarine Radio Room (CSRR) in that a U.S. submarine can be in constant communication with the submarine operating authority while submerged at sea anywhere in the oceans of the world For perspective and historical comparison of technological advances, note that the first nationally authorized submarine warship was not officially commissioned until 1900, while the first trans-Atlantic radio-telegraph was not operational until 1901. VIRGINIA’s modern CSRR for entering the 21st century is for a worldwide battle space. A modernized ship self-defense system will replace the advanced combat direction system in VIRGINIA-Class upgrades. All the software programs for the command-control system module in VIRGINIA are compatible with the Joint Military Command Information System. The Global Command-Control System (GCCS) is a multi-service information management system for maritime users that displays and disseminates data through an extensive array of common interfaces. GCCS is also a multi-service information management system for maritime users that can display and disseminate data through an extensive array of common interfaces. GCCS is also a multi-sensor data-fusion system for command analyses and decision- making. Thus, in the main, it is utilized for overall force coordination The ocean surveillance information system receives, processes, displays and disseminates joint-service information regarding fixed and mobile targets on land and at sea. The innovative design of the upgraded Automated Digital Network System (ADNS) encompasses all radio frequency circuits for routing and switching both strategic and tactical command control communication computer information (C41) with an internet-like transmission control protocol. In doing so, ADNS links battle group units with each other and with the digital information system network. The ADNS now has 224 ship-based units, and four shore-based sites. Network operation centers are linked to three naval computer and telecommunication area master stations, plus one in the Persian Gulf at Bahrain. The Global Broadcast Service is the follow-on for U.S. Navy ultra-high- frequency radio communication via satellite. By 2009, the advanced wide- band system will be the communication upgrade for all U.S. submarines and surface ships, and there is a version planned for U.S. aircraft installation that is under study, Virginia’s combat system suite satisfies a top-level requirement to counter multiple threats with a mission-essential-need statement that details a very effective set of acoustic sensors. The suite features two reel-able towed, linear sonar arrays, the TB-l6 and the thin-line TB-29. Just inside the thin-skinned acoustic window in the bow section of the outer hull is a very sophisticated, state-of-the-art active-passive spherical sonar array, the AN/BQQ-5E. In addition, there are wide-aperture flank-mounted passive sonar arrays; a keel and fin-mounted high sonic frequency active sonar for under-the-ice ranging and maneuvering, and for mine detection and avoidance; a medium sonic frequency active sonar for target ranging; a sonar sensor for intercept of active-ranging signals from an attacking torpedo; and, a self- noise acoustic monitoring system. Moreover, all acoustic systems have advanced signal processors and, where appropriate, algorithms are programmed for beam forming. The Electronic System Measures suite features the AN/BRD-7F radio direction finder; the electronic signal monitors, AN/WLR-lH and AN/WLR-8(V2/6); the AN/WSQ-5 and AN/BLD-1 radio frequency intercept periscope-mounted devices; and the AN/WLQ-4(V1), AN/WLR-l0 and AN/BLQ-l0 radar warning devices. The AN/BPS-15A and BPS-16 are I and J-band navigational piloting radars, respectively, with each having separate wave-guides—one mounted inside a retractable mast and the other mounted inside a periscope. Virginia has four 21-inch-diameter internally loaded torpedo tubes with storage cradles for a combination of an additional 22 torpedoes, missiles, mines, and 20-foot-long, 21-inch diameter Autonomous Underwater Vehicles. In the free-flooding area between the outer and inner hulls, just aft of the bow-mounted AN/BQQ-5E spherical sonar array is Virginia’s Vertical Launch System, comprised of twelve externally loaded 21-inch diameter launch tubes for Tomahawk, the Sea-Launched-Cruise-Missile (SLCM). Shallow water is an anathema for submariners because submarines on the surface are exceptionally vulnerable. Thus, it is said that the best place to sink a submarine is while it is in port. Does that mean that Virginia cannot operate effectively in shallow water?Absolutely not! Another disconcerting imprecation to submariners is hearing the high-pitch “pings— active sonar accompanied by the shrill of cavitations from small, high-speed screws, which are the distinctive sounds of an acoustic torpedo running to ruin your entire day. French author Jules Verne (1825-1905) entertained readers with exciting tales of undersea adventure featuring his fictional submarine Nautilus in his book 20,000 Leagues Under The Sea. Notably, USS Nautilus (SSN 571) logged much more than 20,000 leagues under the sea—like, 80,000 nautical mile before her first re-coring, and Virginia will log over 125,000 leagues of submerged steaming in her service life– without refueling. The nuclear-powered submarine is a far-ranging, very effective, versatile warship for the 21st century—and, the projection of national power by ASDS and SLCMs from international waters only requires unilateral action by the National Command Authority.
U.S. Navy career Captain Ray Wellborn
Over a 30-year U.S. Navy career Captain Ray Wellborn served some 13 years in submarines. He graduated with a B.S. from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1959, a M.S. in Electrical Engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School in 1969, and a M.A. from the Naval War College in 1976. He was a senior lecturer for marine engineering at Texas A&M University Galveston from 1992 to 1996, and currently is a consultant for maritime affairs, and a once-a-year part-time instructor for the Applied Technology Institute’s three-day course titled “Introduction to Submarines—and, Their Combat Systems.