The View Of The Russian Periscope: K-184 vs. Guardfish

“The Saga of the 1972 Guardfish Patrol” by Capt David Minton was read by his Russian counterpart Rear Admiral Alfred S. Berzin, who was the SSGN K-184 commanding officer in the Pacific. For his account of the events please follow this link to the Russian Navy blog.
“The Saga of the 1972 Guardfish Patrol” by Capt David Minton was read by his Russian counterpart Rear Admiral Alfred S. Berzin, who was the SSGN K-184 commanding officer in the Pacific. For his account of the events please follow this link to the Russian Navy blog.


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Do sounds around you effect your mood?

Would you like to know how our everyday soundscapes make you feel – be it happy, excited, productive, sad, uncomfortable, stressed, etc? Soon we all will be able to, thanks to a new exciting research project hosted by the University of Salford, UK called Sound Around You Project. The man behind The Sounds Around You Map Project is […]
Would you like to know how our everyday soundscapes make you feel – be it happy, excited, productive, sad, uncomfortable, stressed, etc? Soon we all will be able to, thanks to a new exciting research project hosted by the University of Salford, UK called Sound Around You Project. The man behind The Sounds Around You Map Project is Researcher Charlie Mydlarz.  He studies at  University of Salford’s Audio and Acoustic Engineering Research Centre, Manchester, UK. He has been building a sound map of the world to investigate how sounds in the everyday environment affect people.
The traditional method of sound surveying is to use trained professionals to go to a specific location to measure and assess a site using dedicated and expensive equipment. This project aims to enfranchise the public by providing them with the opportunity to play an active role in evaluating a soundscape by encouraging people to use their smart phones to record sound clips documenting their community soundscapes.  These are then uploaded to a virtual map along with a set of answers to questions about their selection
All you need to do is capture and tell Charlie about the sounds around you with our free mobile phone and pc software. Participation is easy and fun and will help our research team discover ways to improve the design of our everyday environments. You can watch this video for more explanation.

Introduction to Sound Around You from Martin Bryant on Vimeo.

To get involved visit  www.soundaroundyou.com You might also be interested in  Acoustics, Noise and Sonar Engineering technical training courses offered by ATI.  To view a full list of courses please visit our website.


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Mine-Clearing Dolphins To Be Replaced By NAVY Robots

U.S. Navy-trained dolphins and sea lions have helped detect and disable underwater mines for decades. But a growing swarm of robots will allow the Navy’s squads of sea mammals to begin retiring by 2017, the Navy says. The sea mammals have used their natural sonar or low-light vision to help detect mine threats and even […]
U.S. Navy-trained dolphins and sea lions have helped detect and disable underwater mines for decades. But a growing swarm of robots will allow the Navy’s squads of sea mammals to begin retiring by 2017, the Navy says. The sea mammals have used their natural sonar or low-light vision to help detect mine threats and even call out enemy divers since the 1960s — dolphins in particular helped mark mines during the Persian Gulf War and Iraq War. Their exemplary service is drawing to a close as the Navy turns to a growing fleet of cheaper robots to do the job. Navy-trained sea mammals underwent different types of training depending on their capabilities. For instance, dolphins used their biological sonar to detect the location of sea mines so that they could report back to human handlers with yes or no responses. They could also mark mine locations with buoy lines, or even prepare to disable the mines by attaching explosive charges to them. The impending retirement of the Navy’s sea mammals is part of the broader trend of the U.S. military using robots. Navy efforts include testing robot boats armed with missiles and experimenting with its large X-47B drone capable of taking off from the decks of aircraft carriers.
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How Bats Can Help Scientists Design Better Robots

Bats can detect ultra-small perturbations in the air, and understanding this ability could improve sensitive detection equipment. Bats are great at hunting down prey via echolocation, in which their ultrasonic chirps bounce off anything in the air. Specialized ear designs and other features detect the returning sounds, helping the bats determine the location of a moving […]
Bats can detect ultra-small perturbations in the air, and understanding this ability could improve sensitive detection equipment. Bats are great at hunting down prey via echolocation, in which their ultrasonic chirps bounce off anything in the air. Specialized ear designs and other features detect the returning sounds, helping the bats determine the location of a moving target. But what about when the target is still? Bats have been observed seeking out and catching inert insects hiding amid clutter, and finally scientists think they’ve figured out how the animals do it. The flapping motion of a bat moves the air sufficiently to ruffle the wings of their insect prey, and this trifling perturbation can be detected. Understanding the way bats do this could help improve biomimetic sensors, according to Roman Kuc, professor of electrical engineering at Yale University, and his colleague/son Victor Kuc. The father-son team filmed a common big-eared bat, Micronycteris microtis, with a high-speed camera. The bat hovered over a completely still dragonfly sitting on a leaf, and was able to detect it and pick it up. Watching the playback in slow motion, the Kucs noticed the dragonfly’s wings move ever so slightly in the air current caused by the flapping bat. The dragonfly wings moved in sync with the bat wings. The Kucs then made a model of the induced wing movements and how they affected the returning echoes, according to Yale’s School of Engineering and Applied Science. To do it, they took a real dragonfly, plastic leaves and a robotic sonar system to generate sound pulses. They used an airbrush to puff air at the dragonfly, simulating the beating bat wings. The resulting echo waveforms gave it away: The leaf didn’t really ruffle, but the dragonfly wings did. The Kucs say that bats can figure out the difference, and use it to detect the location of prey that is otherwise silent and totally still.


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Listen: The Rare, Beautiful Songs of Bowhead Whales

  The haunting sounds of bowhead whales, which sing their songs under Arctic ice through long, dark polar winters, have been recorded in unprecedented detail. The recordings reveal a vocal repertoire every bit as rich as better-studied humpback and sperm whales, and hint at complex social organizations and lifestyle patterns hidden until now by the […]
  The haunting sounds of bowhead whales, which sing their songs under Arctic ice through long, dark polar winters, have been recorded in unprecedented detail. The recordings reveal a vocal repertoire every bit as rich as better-studied humpback and sperm whales, and hint at complex social organizations and lifestyle patterns hidden until now by the bowheads’ extreme remoteness. “We know relatively little about bowhead whales. A lot of that has to do with the fact that they’re Arctic whales, found in the high, ice-covered north,” said oceanographer Kate Stafford of the University of Washington. “This data gives us a window into a world that’s largely inaccessible.”   What little scientists do know about bowheads is fascinating. Second only to blue whales in size, they’re highly social and extraordinarily long-lived: 19th-century harpoons have been recovered from their bodies, and some bowheads alive today may have been swimming when Thomas Jefferson was President. Hunted nearly to extinction, bowhead populations have rebounded since the 1960s, giving scientists a chance to study them. Late in the summer of 2008, Stafford and colleagues dropped two underwater microphones into the icy waters of the Fram Strait, between Greenland and Norway, where a handful of bowhead sightings were reported over the last several decades. Bowhead whales are uniquely adapted to Arctic life; their name describes a skull shape suited for punching holes through thick ice, enabling bowheads to surface and breathe in winter (above). The thick winter ice may also have acoustic properties, amplifying their songs like an amphitheater.
To hear what they sound like, click the play button on the audio samples below. Image & audio: Kate Stafford
Stafford’s team hoped merely to catch a few sounds, a stray grunt or moan. Instead, as described in a study published July 31 inEndangered Species Research, they heard a veritable choral symphony.   Between November and late April, hardly an hour passed without the microphones picking up a song. The whales sang for five months straight, and their songs proved unexpectedly rich: No fewer than 60 distinctive types were identified, surpassing in sheer diversity the range of any other baleen whale species. Unlike extensively studied sperm and humpback whale vocalizations, which can be analyzed in some detail — researchers have described sounds that appear to signify names and clan affiliation,between-whale conversations and cultural patterns of learning — bowhead interpretation is in its infancy. Individual whales might sing a few songs, or a great many. Juveniles and adults could have different repertoires. So might males and females. Songs could pass between generations or across groups. They could convey the same types of information heard in other whales, or mean something else altogether. “We just don’t have enough data,” said Stafford, who explained that recorders hardy enough to survive months of Arctic immersion have only existed for a few years. “For humpbacks and sperm whales, that work goes back decades. For bowheads, we’re talking a couple years. But there’s similarly neat stuff going on.” Stafford suspects some songs involve navigation, helping bowheads coordinate over long distances, and some almost certainly involve mating. The sheer volume of songs also seems linked to the nature of polar winters, which plunge Arctic oceans into icebound, near-total darkness for almost five straight months. That’s precisely when the bowheads sang so richly. Stafford’s recordings might represent a bowhead bacchanal. “I don’t want to be anthropomorphic, but they’re spectacular,” she said. “They are loud, and they go on and on.” Download the summary of the paper here.
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ATI Fundamentals of Passive and Active Sonar Short Course

Video Clip: Click to Watch Do You know All There Is to Know About All the Major System Components in a SONAR System? This four-day course is designed for (SOund Navigation And Ranging) SONAR systems engineers, combat systems engineers, undersea warfare professionals, and managers who wish to enhance their understanding of passive and active SONAR or […]
Video Clip: Click to Watch
Do You know All There Is to Know About All the Major System Components in a SONAR System?
This four-day course is designed for (SOund Navigation And Ranging) SONAR systems engineers, combat systems engineers, undersea warfare professionals, and managers who wish to enhance their understanding of passive and active SONAR or become familiar with the “big picture” if they work outside of either discipline. Each topic is presented by instructors with substantial experience at sea. Presentations are illustrated by worked numerical examples using simulated or experimental data describing actual undersea acoustic situations and geometries. Visualization of transmitted waveforms, target interactions, and detector responses is emphasized
Since 1984, the Applied Technology Institute (ATI) has provided leading-edge public courses and onsite technical training. Whether you are a busy engineer, a technical expert or a project manager, you can enhance your understanding of complex systems in a short time. You will become aware of the basic vocabulary essential to interact meaningfully with your colleagues. If you or your team is in need of more technical training, then boost your career with the knowledge needed to provide better, faster, and cheaper solutions for sophisticated systems
What You Will Learn: • The differences between various types of SONAR used on naval platforms today • The fundamental principles governing these systems’ operation • How these systems’ data are used to conduct passive and active operations • How to avoid previous mistakes revealed when systems were taken to sea • Signal acquisition and target motion analysis for passive systems • Waveform and receiver design for active systems • The major cost drivers for undersea acoustic systems Course Outline, Samplers, and Notes Our short courses are designed for individuals involved in planning, designing, building, launching, and operating space and defense systems. Determine for yourself the value of our courses before you sign up. See our samples (See Slide Samples) on some of our courses. Or check out the new ATI channel on YouTube. You will receive a full set of detailed notes at the beginning of the class for future reference and you can add notes and more detail based on the in-class interaction. After completing the course you will also receive a certificate of completion. Please visit our website for more valuable information. About ATI and the Instructors Our mission here at ATI is to provide expert training and the highest quality professional development in space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, and signal processing. We are not a one-size-fits-all educational facility. Our short classes include both introductory and advanced courses. ATI’s instructors are world-class experts who are the best in the business. They are carefully selected for their ability to clearly explain advanced technology. Dr. Harold “Bud” Vincent, Research Associate Professor of Ocean Engineering at the University of Rhode Island and President of DBV Technology, LLC is a U.S. Naval officer qualified in submarine warfare and salvage diving. He has over twenty years of undersea systems experience working in industry, academia, and government (military and civilian). He served on active duty on fast attack and ballistic missile submarines, worked at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, and conducted advanced R&D in the defense industry. Dr. Vincent received the M.S. and Ph.D in Ocean Engineering (Underwater Acoustics) from the University of Rhode Island. His teaching and research encompasses underwater acoustic systems, communications, signal processing, ocean instrumentation, and navigation. He has been awarded four patents for undersea systems and algorithms. Dr. Duncan Sheldon has over twenty-five years’ experience in the field of active sonar signal processing. At Navy undersea warfare laboratories (New London, CT, and Newport, RI) he directed a multiyear research program and developed new active sonar waveforms and receivers for ASW and mine warfare. This work included collaboration with U.S. and international sea tests. His experience includes real-time direction at sea of surface sonar assets during ‘free-play’ NATO ASW exercises. He was a Principal Scientist at the NATO Undersea Research Centre at La Spezia, Italy. He received his Ph.D. from MIT in 1969 and has published articles on waveform and receiver design in the U.S. Navy Journal of Underwater Acoustics. Date and Location For the date and location of this short course, please see below: Aug 13-16, 2012 Newport, RI Sincerely, The ATI Courses Team P.S Call today for registration at 410-956-8805 or 888-501-2100 or access our website at www.ATIcourses.com. For general questions please email us at ATI@ATIcourses.com or Join, Link, Follow or Share with us at: Join us on Facebook Link to us on LinkedIn Follow us on Twitter Share with us on Slideshare P.P.S. What Happens at ATI does NOT Stay at ATI because our training helps you and your organization remain competitive in this changing world. Please feel free to call Mr. Jenkins personally to discuss your requirements and objectives. He will be glad to explain in detail what ATI can do for you, what it will cost, and what you can expect in results and future performance.

New NOAA ship helps gather data

NOAA’s newest ship, the “Hassler”, has some of the most sophisticated equipment available to collect that data. The scientific research being done aboard the Hassler will have some very practical applications. The “fish” being deployed into the water is actually a side-scanning sonar device that enables the team of scientists and NOAA officers to make […]
NOAA’s newest ship, the “Hassler”, has some of the most sophisticated equipment available to collect that data. The scientific research being done aboard the Hassler will have some very practical applications. The “fish” being deployed into the water is actually a side-scanning sonar device that enables the team of scientists and NOAA officers to make a detailed survey of the sea floor. “The side-scan is very important because it gives us a very high resolution picture of the sea-bed.  It allows us to clearly see obstructions and wrecks,” Lt. Cmdr. Ben Evans said. And in shallow water it is capable of scanning a very wide area of the sea-floor. This data, along with depth readings from multi-beam sonar devices, is used by NOAA to produce maps and charts to guide merchant vessels transiting the port of Hampton Roads. “The port is a huge economic engine for the area, so we want to make sure those container ships can come in fully loaded and know exactly how much water they have underneath of their hulls,” Andrew Larkin with NOAA said. Keeping the maps and charts up to date is a constant process because like the crew of the Hassler, the sea floor is constantly on the move. “The out-flow from rivers or storms can move the sand and mud in the area to the approaches of the Chesapeake Bay,” Larkin added. “Occasionally we’ll see things like wrecks, a ship could go down or a container could fall off a ship and block the channel.” The technology aboard the Hassler enables scientists to find and record changes to the sea floor in a fraction of the time this process used to require. “What used to take mariners with a sounding line, it would take em two minutes to do one sounding.  Now we’re doing 1,028 about 20-times a second,” David Moehl said. In fact, the Hassler and her crew are gathering more data than was ever possible.


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Could delaying the sub become costly?

The president’s plan to delay the purchase of one Virginia-class submarine would add millions to the cost of the program and force layoffs across the country, according to those in the submarine building industry. To save money now, the proposed budget calls for building one Virginia-class submarine in 2014 instead of two, and two submarines […]
The president’s plan to delay the purchase of one Virginia-class submarine would add millions to the cost of the program and force layoffs across the country, according to those in the submarine building industry. To save money now, the proposed budget calls for building one Virginia-class submarine in 2014 instead of two, and two submarines in 2018 instead of one. But it will add an estimated $600 million to the cost later, according to the Navy’s figures, said John Holmander, Electric Boat’s vice president who manages the Virginia-class program. The USS California, the eighth Virginia-class submarine, cost $2.38 billion. Labor and parts will cost more four years later. Disrupting the schedule, and the learning curve, creates inefficiencies, which lead to higher costs, Holmander said. The work on the second submarine in 2014 represents about 2 million man hours annually for five years at EB and Newport News Shipbuilding in Virginia – enough work to keep 800 to 1,000 people busy. Those employees would most likely be laid off starting in 2014 if Congress approves the proposed plan, Holmander said. Dan DePompei, co-chairman of the Submarine Industrial Base Council, compared the delay’s impact at EB and Newport News to an earthquake. “But it’s the tsunami that affects the rest of us,” he said, referring to the more than 5,000 suppliers that provide parts and services for the Virginia-class program. “When you get down to the smaller businesses, some of which are really small businesses, it’s very difficult to rebound.” For some, a large share of their profits depends on that work, he said. EB would have placed purchase orders worth at least $150 million next year for parts for the submarine with long lead times. The Navy says it made hard decisions about its shipbuilding programs as a whole “to maintain a balanced portfolio of naval capabilities and meet the constraints imposed by today’s austere fiscal environment,” the Naval Sea Systems Command said in a statement. “The Virginia class is one of many programs that has had to adjust to meet current fiscal realities,” the statement said. U.S. Rep. Joe Courtney, D-2nd District, said “there is no logic” for the delay since it will cost so much – monetarily and strategically – in the long run. The number of attack submarines in the fleet will drop below 48, the stated number required for the missions, in the 2020s as the Cold War era attack submarines retire more quickly than they are replaced. It will hit a low of 39 in 2030. The submarines that are built today are slated to be in service for every year of the gap. Changing the Virginia-class program is a “very short-sighted way to budget,” said Courtney, who is working to restore the second submarine in the 2014 plans. Courtney, along with U.S. Reps. J. Randy Forbes, James R. Langevin and Robert J. Wittman, wrote to the chairman and ranking member of the House Appropriations Committee Thursday to ask for their “continued support for the Virginia-class submarine program and the industrial base that supports it.” “Do you really want to upset your most efficient program?” asked Bob Ross, executive director of the state’s Office of Military Affairs. “That’s the question I think is being asked by a lot of people in Washington, and it’s a good question.” DePompei said he understands that other defense manufacturers are facing the same hardships as submarine suppliers but the SIBC wants the Pentagon to make the “right cuts” to lower the budget. The council’s goal is to educate policymakers and the public about the nation’s ability to design, build and maintain submarines. “The Virginia-class program is recognized and documented as the most successful government program in decades,” he said, referring to the leaders in the Defense Department who have praised the program as a model for efficient acquisition. As the submarine suppliers lose revenue they had projected on the basis of the Navy’s original plan to buy two submarines in 2014, they may, in turn, raise the price of the submarine parts and services they are selling and reduce labor costs by laying off personnel, DePompei said. “The significance of that is these cutbacks would be felt in all 50 states because the suppliers are in all 50 states,” he added. EB avoided laying off some employees during past dips in the workload by sending people to the public shipyards to work on projects there. “We have to deal with realities,” Holmander said. “We are going to try our best, but two million hours a year missing is a lot of work and a lot of jobs.” These employees could be rehired in 2018, Holmander said, but there is no guarantee they would be available to come back. It will take time to train new people and get former employees back up to speed, he said. Holmander said he was also concerned about the interruption in the learning curve. The lessons that would have been learned on the second submarine in 2014 will now be learned on the first submarine in 2015. “Every subsequent unit will be one ship off of the learning curve,” he said. The budget does propose spending millions to develop a module with missile tubes that could boost firepower on Virginia-class submarines. But that project would not be enough to offset the work lost on the second submarine in 2014, Holmander said, and it will require engineers and designers, not employees in the trades.
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Was A Killer Whale Killed By NAVY Exercises?

Applied Technology Institute offers a short technical course, Underwater Acoustics For Biologists and Conservation Managers, on April 17-19, 2012 in Washington, DC area.  We thought the news below would be of interest to our readers. It appears that yet another magnificent creature of the deep,  a member of the endangered southern resident killer whales, was […]
Applied Technology Institute offers a short technical course, Underwater Acoustics For Biologists and Conservation Managers, on April 17-19, 2012 in Washington, DC area.  We thought the news below would be of interest to our readers. It appears that yet another magnificent creature of the deep,  a member of the endangered southern resident killer whales, was killed by NAVY exercises. The body of the three-year-old female whale,L112, known both as Sooke and Little Victoria, washed up on a beach near Long Beach, Washington, shortly after the Canadian navy was using sonar in Juan de Fuca Strait. According to witnesses, sonar pings, which were recorded by a series of hydrophones, were preceded by an explosion. The necropsy conducted by the experts shows that the whale died from “significant trauma”. This caused an outrage in environmental community, including David Suzuki Foundation, Georgia Strait Alliance, Greenpeace, Living Oceans, Raincoast Conservation Foundation, Sierra Club B.C., Western Canada Wilderness Committee and the World Wildlife Fund. Under Canada’s Species At Risk Act the killer whales are listed as endangered spices. All of the above mentioned organizations call for ending of the military exercises in the a release of all information about activities in the area that might have contributed to Sooke’s death. What is you opinion on this matter? Please comment below.
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ATI Instructors Release A New Research Paper: A New Context-Based Approach to Assess Marine Mammal Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Sounds

Applied Technology Institute specializes in acoustics and sonar engineering courses. One of our most popular courses in this technical area is Underwater Acoustics for Biologists and Conservation Managers which will be presented on April 17-19, 2012 in Silver Spring, MD. This course is taught by one of the leading experts in the field Dr. Adam […]
Applied Technology Institute specializes in acoustics and sonar engineering courses. One of our most popular courses in this technical area is Underwater Acoustics for Biologists and Conservation Managers which will be presented on April 17-19, 2012 in Silver Spring, MD. This course is taught by one of the leading experts in the field Dr. Adam S. Frankel. I thought our readers will be interested in the fact that he recently released a new research paper named A New Context-Based Approach to Assess Marine Mammal Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Sounds. The other co-authors of the book are W.T. Ellison, Dr. Brandon Southall and C.W. Clark. You can find more information about this it here. You can register for the upcoming course by calling us at 410-956-8805 or 888-501-2100 or access the web registration page. Any ATI course can be presented as an open-enrollment public course or a private on-site course at your facility. For general questions please email us at ATI@ATIcourses.com


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ATI’s Top 5 Engineering Course Samplers of 2011

Video Clip: Click to Watch ATI specializes in short course technical training Our mission here at the Applied Technology Institute (ATI) is to provide expert training and the highest quality professional development in space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, and signal processing. We are not a one-size-fits-all educational facility. Our short classes include both introductory and advanced […]
What Are the Tools of Your Trade?
Video Clip: Click to Watch
ATI specializes in short course technical training
Our mission here at the Applied Technology Institute (ATI) is to provide expert training and the highest quality professional development in space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, and signal processing. We are not a one-size-fits-all educational facility. Our short classes include both introductory and advanced courses. ATI’s Top Five Engineering Courses for 2011 The five engineering courses for 2011 are highlighted below: #1 Practical Statistical Signal Processing – using MATLAB This 4-day course covers signal processing systems for radar, sonar, communications, speech, imaging and other applications based on state-of-the-art computer algorithms. These algorithms include important tasks such as data simulation, parameter estimation, filtering, interpolation, detection, spectral analysis, beamforming, classification, and tracking. Until now these algorithms could only be learned by reading the latest technical journals. This course will take the mystery out of these designs by introducing the algorithms with a minimum of mathematics and illustrating the key ideas via numerous examples using MATLAB. Designed for engineers, scientists, and other professionals who wish to study the practice of statistical signal processing without the headaches, this course will make extensive use of hands-on MATLAB implementations and demonstrations. Attendees will receive a suite of software source code and are encouraged to bring their own laptops to follow along with the demonstrations. Click here for the tutorial #2 Advanced Topics in Digital Signal Processing This four-day course is designed for communication systems engineers, programmers, implementers and managers who need to understand current practice and next generation DSP techniques for upcoming communication systems. DSP is more than mapping legacy analog designs to a DSP implementation. To avoid compromise solution appropriate for an earlier time period, we return to first principles to learn how to apply new technology capabilities to the design of next generation communication systems. Click here for the tutorial #3 Engineering Systems Modeling WithExcel/VBA This two-day course is for engineers, scientists, and others interested in developing custom engineering system models. Principles and practices are established for creating integrated models using Excel and its built-in programming environment, Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). Real-world techniques and tips not found in any other course, book, or other resource are revealed. Step-bystep implementation, instructor-led interactive examples, and integrated participant exercises solidify the concepts introduced. Application examples are demonstrated from the instructor’s experience in unmanned underwater vehicles, LEO spacecraft, cryogenic propulsion systems, aerospace & military power systems, avionics thermal management, and other projects. Click here for the tutorial #4 Wavelets: A Conceptual, Practical Approach Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) are in wide use and work very well if your signal stays at a constant frequency (“stationary”). But if the signal could vary, have pulses, “blips” or any other kind of interesting behavior then you need Wavelets. Wavelets are remarkable tools that can stretch and move like an amoeba to find the hidden “events” and then simultaneously give you their location, frequency, and shape. Wavelet Transforms allow this and many other capabilities not possible with conventional methods like the FFT. This course is vastly different from traditional math-oriented Wavelet courses or books in that we use examples, figures, and computer demonstrations to show how to understand and work with Wavelets. This is a comprehensive, in-depth, up-to-date treatment of the subject, but from an intuitive, conceptual point of view. We do look at a few key equations from the traditional literature but only AFTER the concepts are demonstrated and understood. If desired, further study from scholarly texts and papers is then made much easier and more palatable when you already understand the fundamental equations and how they relate to the real world. Click here for the tutorial #5 Computational Electromagnetics This 3-day course teaches the basics of CEM with application examples. Fundamental concepts in the solution of EM radiation and scattering problems are presented. Emphasis is on applying computational methods to practical applications. You will develop a working knowledge of popular methods such as the FEM, MOM, FDTD, FIT, and TLM including asymptotic and hybrid methods. Students will then be able to identify the most relevant CEM method for various applications, avoid common user pitfalls, understand model validation and correctly interpret results. Students are encouraged to bring their laptop to work examples using the provided FEKO Lite code. You will learn the importance of model development and meshing, post- processing for scientific visualization and presentation of results. Click here for the tutorial Course Outline, Samplers, and Notes Determine for yourself the value of these or our other courses before you sign up. See our samples (See Slide Samples) on some of our courses. Or check out the new ATI channel on YouTube. After attending the course you will receive a full set of detailed notes from the class for future reference, as well as a certificate of completion. To see the complete course listing from ATI, click on the links at the bottom of the page. Please visit our website for more valuable information. About ATI and the Instructors Since 1984, ATI has provided leading-edge public courses and onsite technical training to DoD and NASA personnel, as well as contractors. ATI short courses are designed to help you keep your professional knowledge up-to-date. Our courses provide you a practical overview of space and defense technologies which provide a strong foundation for understanding the issues that must be confronted in the use, regulation and development such complex systems. Our short courses are designed for individuals involved in planning, designing, building, launching, and operating space and defense systems. Whether you are a busy engineer, a technical expert or a project manager, you can enhance your understanding of complex systems in a short time. You will also become aware of the basic vocabulary essential to interact meaningfully with your colleagues. ATI’s instructors are world-class experts who are the best in the business. They are carefully selected for their ability to clearly explain advanced technology.


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Psssst…What Have You Heard about ATI’s Acoustics Course?

Video Clip: Click to Watch ATI’S ACOUSTICS FUNDAMENTALS, MEASUREMENTS & APPLICATIONS COURSE Here is what we have heard from some of our students: “Great instructor made the course interesting and informative. Helped clear-up many misconceptions I had about sound and its measurement” “Enjoyed the in-class demonstrations; they help explain the concepts. Instructor helped me with a […]
A Typical Acoustic Impulse Response of a Room
Video Clip: Click to Watch
Here is what we have heard from some of our students:
  • “Great instructor made the course interesting and informative. Helped clear-up many misconceptions I had about sound and its measurement”
  • “Enjoyed the in-class demonstrations; they help explain the concepts. Instructor helped me with a problem I was having at work, worth the price of the course!”
This three-day course is intended for engineers and other technical personnel and managers who have a work-related need to understand basic acoustics concepts and how to measure and analyze sound. This is an introductory course and participants need not have any prior knowledge of sound or vibration. Each topic is illustrated by appropriate applications, in-class demonstrations, and worked-out numerical examples. Since 1984, the Applied Technology Institute (ATI) has provided leading-edge public courses and onsite technical training to DoD and NASA personnel, as well as contractors. Whether you are a busy engineer, a technical expert or a project manager, you can enhance your understanding of complex systems in a short time. You will become aware of the basic vocabulary essential to interact meaningfully with your colleagues. If you or your team is in need of more technical training, then boost your career with the knowledge needed to provide better, faster, and cheaper solutions for sophisticated systems. Why not take a short course? ATI short courses are less than a week long and are designed to help you keep your professional knowledge up-to-date. Our courses provide a practical overview of space and defense technologies which provide a strong foundation for understanding the issues that must be confronted in the use, regulation and development of complex systems. Course Outline and Notes The course starts with introductory concepts. With this background, the students are then schooled in waves, radiation and measurements. The course concludes with a discussion of representative applications, including outdoor sound propagation (temperature and wind effects) and environmental effects. What You Will Learn:
  • How to make proper sound level measurements
  • How to analyze and report acoustic data
  • The basis of decibels (dB) and the A-weighting scale
  • How intensity probes work and allow near-field sound measurements
  • How to measure radiated sound power and sound transmission loss
  • How to use third-octave bands and narrow-band spectrum analyzers
  • How the source-path-receiver approach is used in noise control engineering
  • How sound builds up in enclosures like vehicle interiors and rooms
After attending this course you will receive a full set of detailed notes at the beginning of the class for future reference and can add notes and more detail based on the in-class interaction, as well as a certificate of completion. Each student will also receive a copy of the textbook, Acoustics: An Introduction by Heinrich Kuttruff. Please visit our website st the links below for more valuable information. About ATI and the Instructors Our mission here at ATI is to provide expert training and the highest quality professional development in space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, and signal processing. We are not a one-size-fits-all educational facility. Our short classes include both introductory and advanced courses. ATI’s instructors are world-class experts who are the best in the business. They are carefully selected for their ability to clearly explain advanced technology. Dr. Alan D. Stuart, Associate Professor Emeritus of Acoustics, Penn State, has over forty years experience in the field of sound and vibration. He has degrees in mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and engineering acoustics. For over thirty years he has taught courses on the Fundamentals of Acoustics, Structural Acoustics, Applied Acoustics, Noise Control Engineering, and Sonar Engineering on both the graduate and undergraduate levels as well as at government and industrial organizations throughout the country. Dates and Locations The dates and locations of this short course, are below: April 10-12, 2012 in Silver Spring, MD July 17-19, 2012 in Bremmerton, WA


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ATI’s Practical Statistical Signal Processing — using MATLAB, January 9-12, 2012 (Laurel, MD)

Could you use a toolbox of Digital Signal Processing algorithms written by the well-known professor Dr. Stephan Kay, as well as his personal instruction on how to use these algorithms to solve practical problems in your area of work? At his January class you will receive his two textbooks, a set of printed notes, and […]
Could you use a toolbox of Digital Signal Processing algorithms written by the well-known professor Dr. Stephan Kay, as well as his personal instruction on how to use these algorithms to solve practical problems in your area of work? At his January class you will receive his two textbooks, a set of printed notes, and a disk with MATLAB code implementing his algorithms.   ATI’s Practical Statistical Signal Processing — using MATLAB course will be presented on January 9-12, 2012 in Laurel, MD.   This 4-day course covers signal processing systems for radar, sonar, communications, speech, imaging and other applications based on state-of-the-art computer algorithms. These algorithms include important tasks such as data simulation, parameter estimation, filtering, interpolation, detection, spectral analysis, beamforming, classification, and tracking. Until now these algorithms could only be learned by reading the latest technical journals. This course will take the mystery out of these designs by introducing the algorithms with a minimum of mathematics and illustrating the key ideas via numerous examples using MATLAB. Designed for engineers, scientists, and other professionals who wish to study the practice of statistical signal processing without the headaches, this course will make extensive use of hands-on MATLAB implementations and demonstrations. Attendees will receive a suite of software source code and are encouraged to bring their own laptops to follow along with the demonstrations. Each participant will receive two books, Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing: Vol. I and Vol. 2 by instructor Dr. Kay. A complete set of notes and a suite of MATLAB m-files will be distributed in source format for direct use or modification by the user. See selected samples of the course materials. View course sampler Instructor: Dr. Steven Kay is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Rhode Island and the President of Signal Processing Systems, a consulting firm to industry and the government. He has over 25 years of research and development experience in designing optimal statistical signal processing algorithms for radar, sonar, speech, image, communications, vibration, and financial data analysis. Much of his work has been published in over 100 technical papers and the three textbooks, Modern Spectral Estimation: Theory and Application, Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing: Estimation Theory,, and Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing: Detection Theory. Dr. Kay is a Fellow of the IEEE. Tuition: Original: $2,095 Special blog price if you register before January 1, 2012: $1,995 ( We are testing how many people read the ATI blog and will register based on the blog information)   Start your New Year with proper training! Register here.   This link shows you the current SCHEDULE of all courses.   Please circulate the information to any and all you think will be interested courses as well.


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The world’s most sophisticated submarine is launched in US!

In Norfolk Naval Station to be precise… USS California (SSN 781) is the most modern submarine in the world. It will help the US hold the undersea dominion. What do we know about it?  Here are the facts. California is designed to excel in anti-submarine warfare; anti-ship warfare; strike warfare; special operations; intelligence, surveillance, and […]
In Norfolk Naval Station to be precise… USS California (SSN 781) is the most modern submarine in the world. It will help the US hold the undersea dominion.
USS California (SSN 781) Christening
What do we know about it?  Here are the facts. California is designed to excel in anti-submarine warfare; anti-ship warfare; strike warfare; special operations; intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; irregular warfare; and mine warfare missions. The submarine is 377 feet long, has a 34-foot beam, will be able to dive to depths greater than 800 feet and will operate at speeds in excess of 25 knots submerged. USS California (SSN-781), is the eighth Virginia-class submarine, and the eighth United States Navy ship named for the state of California. The contract to build her was awarded to Newport News Shipbuilding (then called Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co.) in Newport News, Virginia, on 14 August 2003. Construction began in December 2006.California‘s keel was laid down on 1 May 2009. She was christened on 6 November 2010, sponsored by Donna Willard, wife of Admiral Robert F. Willard. She was launched eight days later, on 14 November 2010. California is the first Virginia-class submarine built with the advanced electromagnetic signature reduction system; although it will be retrofitted into older submarines of the class. California was delivered to the Navy on 7 August 2011, eight and a half months ahead of schedule. The $2.3 billion ship was commissioned on 29 October 2011 in Norfolk, Virginia, with Dana Nelson in command and a crew of 134.


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Why are Submarines Painted Black?

Video Clip: Click to Watch From an attack (SSN) to a fleet ballistic missile (SSBN) submarine, submarines are presented as a system of sub-systems A submarine is among the most technologically advanced machines ever built. The combination of computer technology, precision navigation, atmosphere regeneration, sensitive sonar equipment, sound quieting, nuclear power, and precision weapons make for […]
Seaman paint topside on the USS Oklahoma City (SSN 723)
Video Clip: Click to Watch
From an attack (SSN) to a fleet ballistic missile (SSBN) submarine, submarines are presented as a system of sub-systems
A submarine is among the most technologically advanced machines ever built. The combination of computer technology, precision navigation, atmosphere regeneration, sensitive sonar equipment, sound quieting, nuclear power, and precision weapons make for a most complex environment. Submarines are always deployed in the oceans around the world. Submarines are painted black to help them hide, as it is essential for submarines to hide while doing their job. The black color has proven to best help the submarine hide in the ocean. Whether you are a busy engineer, a technical expert or a project manager, you can enhance your understanding of complex systems, such as submarines, in a short time. Since 1984, the Applied Technology Institute (ATI) has provided leading-edge public short courses and onsite technical training to military personnel, as well as contractors. Why not take a short course? ATI short courses are less than a week long and are designed to help you keep your professional knowledge up-to-date. Our courses provide a practical overview of technologies which provide a strong foundation for understanding the issues that must be confronted in the use, regulation and development of these complex underwater systems. You will also become aware of the basic vocabulary essential to interact meaningfully with your colleagues. SUBMARINES AND ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE COURSE This three-day course presents the fundamental philosophy of submarine design, construction, and stability as well as the utilization of submarines as cost-effective warships at sea. A thumbnail history of waging war by coming up from below the surface of the sea relates prior gains—and, prior set-backs. Today’s submarine tasking is discussed in consonance with the strategy and policy of the US, and the goals, objectives, mission, functions, tasks, responsibilities, and roles of the US Navy. The foreboding efficacy of submarine warfare is analyzed referencing some enthralling calculations for its Benefits-to-Cost, in that Submarines Sink Ships! The submarine threat for the 21st century is discussed, posing such questions as: “Will diesel-electric submarines, as a cost-effective weapon for the Third World, be a significant threat to the national economies of other nations? Is shallow-water ASW in the littoral approaches to a coastline of a country embroiled in a Low-Intensity-Conflict a Mission-Essential-Need— for the US too? Will it still be best to sink a submarine while it is in port? So, where do We, the People… go from here? Herein the submarine is presented as a system in its self, thus an aim of the instructor is to clarify the essences of sub-system interfaces for engineers and scientists involved in testing or R&D for submarine systems. Attendees who in the past have worked with specific submarine sub-systems can consider this course as Continuing Education. Also, because of its introductory nature, this course will be enlightening to those just entering the field. Course Outline: • Thumbnail History of Warfare from Beneath the Sea: From a glass-barrel in circa 300 BC, to SSN 774 in 2004. • The Efficacy of Submarine Warfare — WWI and WWII: A Benefit/Cost Analysis to depict just how well Submarines Sink Ships! • Submarine Organization — and, Submariners: What is the psyche and disposition of those Qualified in Submarines, as distinguished by a pair of Dolphins? And, will new submariners be able to measure up to the legend of Steel Boats, and Iron Men! • Submarine Design & Construction: Fundamentals of Form, Fit, & Function, plus an analysis of ship-stability. • Principles of Sound in the Sea: A basis for a rudimentary primer on the “Calculus of Acoustical Propagation.” • Combat System Suite — Components & Nomenclature: In OHIO, LOS ANGELES, SEAWOLF, and VIRGINIA. • Submarines of the World — by Order of Battle: How Many, from Where. To do What, to Whom? • Antisubmarine Warfare — Our Number One Priority: For the USN, ASW is a combined-arms task for forces from above, on, and below the surface of the sea — inclusive of littoral waters — to engage The Enemy Below! This course is valuable to engineers and scientists in the research, development or testing of submarine systems, as well as newcomers to the field or those who want an overview Additional Resource: Capt. Wellborn’s article in PDF format, The Efficacy of Submarine Warships, provides a useful overview of the topic of submarine design, construction and deployment. ADVANCED UNDERSEA WARFARE COURSE Advanced Undersea Warfare (USW) covers the latest information about submarine employment in future conflicts. The course is taught by a leading innovator in submarine tactics. The roles, capabilities and future developments of submarines in littoral warfare are emphasized. The technology and tactics of modern nuclear and diesel submarines are discussed. The importances of stealth, mobility, and firepower for submarine missions are illustrated by historical and projected roles of submarines. Differences between nuclear and diesel submarines are reviewed. Submarine sensors (sonar, ELINT, visual) and weapons (torpedoes, missiles, mines, special forces) are presented. Advanced USW gives you a wealth of practical knowledge about the latest issues and tactics in submarine warfare. The course provides the necessary background to understand the employment of submarines in the current world environment. Advanced USW is valuable to engineers and scientists who are working in research, development or testing of submarine systems. It provides the knowledge and perspective to understand advanced USW in shallow water and regional conflicts. Course Outline: • Mechanics and Physics of Submarines — Stealth, mobility, firepower, and endurance. The hull – tradeoffs between speed, depth, and payload. The “Operating Envelope”. The “Guts” – energy, electricity, air, and hydraulics. • Submarine Sensors — Passive sonar. Active sonar. Radio frequency sensors. Visual sensors. Communications and connectivity considerations. Tactical considerations of employment. • Submarine Weapons and Off-Board Devices — Torpedoes. Missiles. Mines. Countermeasures. Tactical considerations of employment. Special Forces. • Historical Employment of Submarines — Coastal defense. Fleet scouts. Commerce raiders. Intelligence and warning. Reconnaissance and surveillance. Tactical considerations of employment. • Cold War Employment of Submarines — The maritime strategy. Forward offense. Strategic anti-submarine warfare. Tactical considerations of employment. • Submarine Employment in Littoral Warfare — Overt and covert “presence”. Battle group and joint operations support. Covert mine detection, localization and neutralization. Injection and recovery of Special Forces. Targeting and bomb damage assessment. Tactical considerations of employment. Results of recent out-year wargaming. • Littoral Warfare “Threats” — Types and fuzing options of mines. Vulnerability of submarines compared to surface ships. The diesel-electric or air-independent propulsion submarine “threat”. Vulnerability of submarines compared to surface ships. The “Brown-water” acoustic environment. Sensor and weapon performance. Non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare. Tactical considerations of employment. • Advanced Sensor, Weapon & Operational Concepts — Future submarine concepts. Strike, Anti-air and anti Theater Ballistic Missile weapons. Autonomous underwater vehicles and deployed off-board systems. Improved C-cubed. The blue-green laser and other enabling technology. Some unsolved issues of jointness. Course Outline, Samplers, and Notes This basic and advance course are designed for individuals involved in planning, designing, building, launching, and operating submarine systems. Determine for yourself the value of our courses before you sign up. View course sampler for Submarines and Anti-Submarine Warfare course here or the Advanced Undersea Warfare course here. https://secureservercdn.net/198.71.189.232/56v.d29.myftpupload.com/sampler/Submarines%20&%20their%20Combat%20Systems.pdf https://secureservercdn.net/198.71.189.232/56v.d29.myftpupload.com/sampler/Advanced_Undersea_Warfare.pdf After attending the course you will receive a full set of detailed notes from the class for future reference, as well as a certificate of completion. Please visit our website for more valuable information. About ATI and the Instructors Our mission here at ATI is to provide expert training and the highest quality professional development in space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, and signal processing. We are not a one-size-fits-all educational facility. Our short classes include both introductory and advanced courses. ATI’s instructors are world-class experts who are the best in the business. They are carefully selected for their ability to clearly explain advanced technology. Submarines and Anti-Submarine Warfare course Captain Ray Wellborn, USN (retired) served over 13 years of his 30-year Navy career in submarines. He has a BSEE degree from the US Naval Academy and a MSEE degree from the Naval Postgraduate School. He also has an MA from the Naval War College. He had two major commands at sea and one ashore: USS MOUNT BAKER (AE 34), USS DETROIT (AOE 4), and the Naval Electronics Systems Engineering Center, Charleston. He was Program Manager for Tactical Towed Array Sonar Systems and Program Director for Surface Ship and Helicopter ASW Systems for the Naval Sea Command in Washington, DC. After retirement in 1989, he was the Director of Programs, ARGOTEC, Inc.: and, oversaw the manufacture of advanced R&D models for large underwater acoustic projectors. From 1992 to 1996, he was a Senior Lecturer in the Marine Engineering Department of Texas A&M, Galveston. Since 1996, he has been an independent consultant for International Maritime Affairs. Advanced Undersea Warfare course Capt. James Patton (USN ret.) is President of Submarine Tactics and Technology, Inc. and is considered a leading innovator of pro- and anti-submarine warfare and naval tactical doctrine. His 30 years of experience includes actively consulting on submarine weapons, advanced combat systems, and other stealth warfare-related issues to over 30 industrial and government entities. While at OPNAV, Capt Patton actively participated in submarine weapon and sensor research and development, and was instrumental in the development of the towed array. As Chief Staff Officer at Submarine Development Squadron Twelve (SUBDEVRON 12), and as Head of the Advanced Tactics Department at the Naval Submarine School, he was instrumental in the development of much of the current tactical doctrine. Commodore Bhim Uppal former Director of Submarines for the Indian Navy and he is now a consultant with American Systems Corporation. He will discuss the performance and tactics of diesel submarines in littoral waters. He has direct experience onboard FOXTROT, KILO, and Type 1500 diesel electric submarines. He has over 25 years of experience in diesel submarines with the Indian Navy and can provide a unique insight into the thinking, strategies, and tactics of foreign submarines. He helped purchase and evaluate Type 1500 and KILO diesel submarines. Times, Dates, and Locations For the times, dates and locations of all of these two short courses, please access the ATI website here.


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Home Noise Is A Groaning Sound

Home noise is a groaning sound that seems to be coming from the first floor. There are a few things that make plumbing pipes noisy and the most common is something called water hammer, then there is a ticking sound that occurs with plastic waste lines called pipe growth and the rarest is what I […]
Home noise is a groaning sound that seems to be coming from the first floor. There are a few things that make plumbing pipes noisy and the most common is something called water hammer, then there is a ticking sound that occurs with plastic waste lines called pipe growth and the rarest is what I think you have – moaning. It is related to the venting system of the waste lines. More info at the link below. http://www.hometownannapolis.com/news/hom/2011/08/13-01/On-the-Level-Sewer-line-might-be-cause-of-groaning.html

Beluga Whale, Mariachi Band And Some Fancy Wedding Dancing?

This video of a 9 year old beluga whale seemingly dancing to some mariachi music has surfaced recently.  It was shot during a wedding ceremony that took place in Mystic Aquarium in Connecticut.   The whale seemed to bob his head and follow the rhythm of the music.  A lot of people would like to believe […]
This video of a 9 year old beluga whale seemingly dancing to some mariachi music has surfaced recently.  It was shot during a wedding ceremony that took place in Mystic Aquarium in Connecticut.   The whale seemed to bob his head and follow the rhythm of the music.  A lot of people would like to believe that this is exactly what the whale was doing.  However, scientific research shows that whales can’t hear the music the way we do.  They simply feel the vibrations.   But, that in itself, is a powerful gift. The underwater environment of the world’s oceans is filled with a variety of sounds.  Most aquatic animals use sound for communications between members of their species.  The reason for this is that sounds propagates well in water and covers longer distances.   Whales depend on sound vibration for orientation. This ability is important for predators of the deep sea where light is greatly reduced.  They use sound waves in echolocation and this allows them to detect objects and organisms by means of sonar.  Whales, as well as many other marine animals, use a form of song to communicate through the water. A whale will use their songs most often as mating calls for the opposite sex. You can listen to the marine sounds around the world on their site.  Please click on the link below.  This is quite a unique experience to be able to hear underwater sounds across the globe. http://www.listentothedeep.com/acoustics/index2.php?web=lidoearth&lang=en   If you wish to enhance your understanding of the underlying principles of underwater and engineering acoustics needed to evaluate the impact of anthropogenic noise on marine life, please attend ATI’s Underwater Acoustics for Biologists and Conservation Managers course that will be presented on October 17-20, 2011 in Seattle, WA.


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USS VIRGINIA SSN 774-A NEW STEEL SHARK AT SEA

Submarine Modernization: On 4 July 2004, USS VIRGINIA (SSN 774) joined the Fleet.  She is 377 feet in length, 34 feet in the beam, has a draft of 30.5 feet at the designer’s waterline, DWL, and displaces 7800 dwt submerged.  She is designed with Berthing and Messing to accommodate 14 officers and a crew of […]
Submarine Modernization: On 4 July 2004, USS VIRGINIA (SSN 774) joined the Fleet.  She is 377 feet in length, 34 feet in the beam, has a draft of 30.5 feet at the designer’s waterline, DWL, and displaces 7800 dwt submerged.  She is designed with Berthing and Messing to accommodate 14 officers and a crew of 120.
  VIRGINIA’s Length-to-Breadth, L/B, ratio of 11.09 is comparable to the 11.0 for LOS ANGELES Class submarines with a 33-foot beam, and is somewhat more than SEAWOLF’s 8.4 with a 42-foot beam, but a little less than OHIO’s 13.3 also with a 42-foot beam. Note that the US Navy officially will neither confirm nor deny any US submarine’s speed except to be greater than 20 knots, and a test-depth greater than 400 feet. The wall-thickness and diameter of VIRGINIA’s cold-rolled, HY-120 steel inner pressure hull, with scrupulously designed hull-penetrations and conscientious seam-welds, allows submarine design engineers to impose a safe-diving test-depth of 1600 feet, according to the open literature. Her design for a reduced number of needed hull-penetration features eight non-hull penetrating antennae packages. VIRGINIA is powered by a S9G PWR, a Pressurized Water Reactor, made by General Electric that will not require re-coring for the life of the ship.  Her propulsion plant is rated at 40,000 SHP for a single shaft with a maximum rated submerged speed of 34 knots, according to the open literature.  She is designed with SEAWOLF-level acoustic quietness for stealth as well as acoustic tile cladding for active acoustic signal absorption. VIRGINIA’s integral 9-man lock-out chamber can be used with the Advanced SEAL Delivery System, ASDS, which is mini-submarine capable of “dry” delivery of a SEAL team.  Moreover, the internal torpedo magazine space can be adapted to provide 2400 cubic feet of space for up to 40 SEAL team-members and their equipment. VIRGINIA is capable of carrying and operating advanced Unmanned Underwater Vehicles, UUV’s, wake-homing detection equipment, and a deployable active bi-static sonar source. The bottom-line is that VIRGINIA is an extremely capable submarine, and in the hands of a well-trained, experienced ship’s company skilled in the operational arts of submarine warfare, has an incisive ability for both deep ocean and shallow water operations of all kinds— including Anti-Submarine Warfare. But, of all the technological advances of the 20th century, electrical and electronic ones top my long list of amazing achievements.  On my military-related list of amazing achievements, there are two technological advancements that stand-out to me.  One is for the technological improvements in the electronic instruments for precise navigation, and the other is for the advances in military command-control-communications. Navigation:  The Art—and, the Science. Some 439 years after Magellan’s historic circumnavigation of the world on May 10, 1960, USS TRITON (SSRN 586) completed the first submerged circumnavigation of the world following Magellan’s route having sailed some 41,000 miles in eighty-four days. Two years before, NAUTILUS accomplished a historic navigational feat by transiting 1,830 miles submerged in four days from the Pacific to the Atlantic—and, in doing so, became the first ship to pass over the North Pole—NAUTILUS 90-NORTH! On July 20, 1960, while submerged off the coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida, USS GEORGE WASHINGTON, with a self-contained navigational system for precise launch-position fixing fired two Polaris A-1 missiles that hit their respective bull’s eyes some 1200 miles down range, and then signaled: “FROM THE DEEP, POLARIS ON TARGET—RABORN.” So, for comparison to these early strivings for more precise navigation on the open sea, consider the most sophisticated state-of-the art computer data processor now known, which precisely calculates the output of an absolutely ingenious arrangement of gyros and accelerometers that sense the slightest nano-scale movement: The SINS, Ship’s Inertial Navigation System. But, in my biased opinion, at the top of the list are the technological advancements resident in the Common Submarine Radio Room, CSRR, for a US submarine to be in constant communication with its Submarine Operating Authority while submerged at sea anywhere in the oceans of the world. Communication:  The Science—and, the Technology. For historical comparison of technological advances, note that the first nationally authorized submarine warship was not officially commissioned until 1900, while the first transatlantic radio-telegraph was not operational until 1901.  Moreover, it was not until some fifteen years later on May 31, 1916, that the British Grand Fleet engaged the German’s High Seas Fleet in the Battle of Jutland in the North Sea just off the Danish Peninsula of Jutland. A bold German Admiral, Reinhard Scheer, led the German Fleet out of Helgoland Bay, through which 20 years later would be the western approaches for the Kiel Canal.  Admiral Scheer intended to break Britain’s blockade of Germany.  British wireless-radio monitors, acting as communication-intercept operators, diligently alerted Admiral Sir John Jellicoe with their timely intercepts of German command messages that were directing naval activity at Wilhelmshaven. Admiral Jellicoe immediately ordered the British Fleet to sea, and the battle was joined at sea about 80 miles west of Jutland.  Rifled naval guns, 12” in diameter, fired 1000-pound projectiles with 400-pound powder charges that screamed at a muzzle velocity of about 1500 mph to strike targets over-the-horizon at a range of some 11 miles.  Naval warfare for the 20th century opened dramatically with the first act of “Shock and Awe.” Notwithstanding the advent of coal-powered, steam-engine driven, steel-framed and steel-clad DREADNOUGHT battleships, fast cruisers, expendable destroyers, et al, one of the most significant transpirations for naval warfare in WW-I, in my opinion, was the first use of radio-telegraphy communications to all the ships at sea; and, its concomitant intelligence nemesis, COMINT– communication intercepts. Militarists profess that the ability of the German Naval Command to communicate directly with U-boats at sea greatly enhanced their successes in both WW-I and WW-II. And, so it is today.   The Common Submarine Radio Room, CSRR. VIRGINIA’s modern communication suite installed as a CSRR is well-suited for the worldwide battle space of the 21st century. A modernized Ship Self-Defense System, SSDS, will replace the Advanced Combat Direction System, ACDS, in VIRGINIA-Class upgrades. All the software programs for the CCSM, Command-Control System Module, in VIRGINIA are compatible with the Joint Military Command Information System, JMCIS. For instance, the AN-USC-38 EHF transceiver in VIRGINIA has LINK-11 and NATO LINK-11 compatibly programmed for JTIDS. The AN/WSC-8, Challenge Athena, houses a “Commercial Wide-Band Satellite Communication’s Program” to support the Tomahawk, Submarine Launched Cruise Missile, SLCM, land-attack configuration. The AN/USQ-123 (CDL-N), Command Data Link, Navy, is used for receipt of signal-and-imagery intelligence data from remote sensors, and for the transmission that links sensor-control data to/from airborne and submarine platforms. The Global Command & Control System, GCCS, is a multi-service information management system for maritime users that can display and disseminate data through an extensive array of common interfaces.  GCCS also is a multi-sensor data-fusion system for command analyses and decision-making.  Thus, in the main, it is utilized for overall force-coordination. The Ocean Surveillance Information System, OSIS, receives, processes, displays, and disseminates joint-service information regarding fixed and mobile targets on land and at sea. The Multi-Level Security System, MLS, also known as “Radiant Mercury,” among other things MLS automatically sanitizes highly classified data, and then re-issues it as SI-GENSER RELEASABLE to “Shooters” while still protecting sources and methods, national sensitivities, and foreign release-ability of the tactical picture. The innovative design of the upgraded Automated Digital Network System encompasses all RF circuits for routing/switching of both strategic and tactical C4I, Command-Control-Communication-Computer Information, with TCP/ICP, Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Control Protocol, thereby linking Battle Group units with each other and with the DISN, Digital Information System Network. The ADNS now has 224 ship-based units, and four shore-based sites.  Network operation centers are linked to three Naval Computer and Telecommunication Area Master Stations plus one in the Persian Gulf at Bahrain.  Whereas, the Global Broadcast Service, GBS, is the follow-on for US Navy UHF radio communication via satellite.  By 2009, the Advanced Wideband System, AWS, will be the communication upgrade for all US submarines and surface ships, and a version planned for US aircraft installation is under study. Submarine Tasking. So, what are submarines task to do?  Primer: Submarines Sink Ships! Second to that, submarines can hunt and kill other opposing submarines in the medium with them.  In more poignant warfare scenarios, submarines can be tasked to mine sea-lane choke points as well as enemy harbors.  Moreover, pursuant to mission accomplishment in support of national policies, and in particular for a duly delineated national armed-force objective to “Project National Power,” submarines can launch land-attack missiles from international waters, as directed by the National Command Authority, NCA– acting unilaterally. In addition, submarines can be tasked to conduct surveillance and reconnaissance operations inside and outside the battle space, covertly.  In that same vein, submarines can be tasked to insert, and, or retract Special Operating Forces on the shores of the world’s ocean-littoral– covertly. For deployments, submarines provide indirect, associated, and direct Battle Group support.  Time-On-Station for modern nuclear-powered submarines is dependent only on the amount of food they have to feed their crew—like 90 days without replenishment. Note, after 60 days, dreams of a real milk-shake, and a … become more frequent, seemingly with an exponentially increasing persistency. As a precursor for a discussion on submarine weapons, consider the following “insider” information about sensing an acoustic event—as heard from each side.  The sound of flooding a torpedo tube with a weapon in it is a distinguishable acoustic event.  In an analogy to Blind Man’s Bluff, this is the sound-equivalent of the sight of a pistol being drawn from its holster.  Likewise, hearing a torpedo tube’s outer door open is analogous to seeing a pistol’s hammer being cocked.  Doubtless, these are distinctive sounds that are instinctive indicators that you are engaged in mortal combat, a fight—a gunfight. Note that at sea, water from below, like water from above, wets both teams. Submarine Weapons. The Mark-48 Mod-6, Advanced Capability, ADCAP, Heavyweight (heavier than the water it displaces) Acoustic-Homing Torpedo, is an automated marvel of essentially an unmanned underwater vehicle that delivers an explosive charge as a very “numbing sting.” The ADCAP is self-propelled by an axial-flow, pump-jet propulsion system driven by an external combustion, gas-piston engine fuel-fired by a mono-propellant, Otto Fuel II. There are two run-speed selections: LOW, for 40 knots and a range of 50 km; and, HIGH, for 55 knots and a range of 38 km.  The MK-48 is 228” in length and 21” in diameter weighing in at 3527 pounds, which is about 600 pounds heavier than the sea-water its volume displaces.  Its warhead is 590-lb of High Explosive, with a 1.5 multiplying factor for its TNT-equivalent. Note, from the perspective of the target, sensing this torpedo coming at you is analogous to you finding yourself driving precariously on an icy road in the middle of nowhere, and then alarmingly you sight through your driver’s-side window a pick-up truck barreling down on you at about 63 mph– loaded with 900 sticks of dynamite. From this visual input, you analytically conclude that you have less than a minute in these icy conditions to think and act to avoid collision—and thus, realize that the only thing you have time to do is bend over and kiss yourself good-bye. The submarine-launched Tomahawk Land-Attack Missile, TLAM, has a range of 900 km with a 1000-pound High Explosive warhead.  With a Terrain Contour Matching Aided Internal Navigation System, TAINS, its circular-error probable, CEP, is inside 10m for 50% of its shot-trials—like in through your front-room’s window instead of knocking on the front-door.         Submarine Combat System. VIRGINIA’s combat system is a suite of very high-tech devices that each satisfy a Mission Essential Need. The suite has devices designed to sense danger—and opportunity.  These devices are a very effective set of acoustic sensors.  There is a reel-able linear towed array sonar, and a thin-line array—TB-16 and TB-29. Just inside the thin-skinned acoustic “window” of the outer hull around the bow is a very sophisticated, state-of-the-art active/passive spherical sonar array, AN-BQQ-5E.  In addition, there are wide-aperture flank-mounted passive arrays, AN-BQG-5D; a keel-and-fin-mounted high sonic frequency active sonar for under-the-ice ranging and maneuvering as well as for mine detection and avoidance; a medium sonic frequency active sonar for target ranging; a sonar sensor for intercept of active-ranging signals from an attacking torpedo; and, a self-noise acoustic monitoring system.  Moreover, all acoustic systems have advanced signal processors– replete with programmed algorithms for beam-forming. Electronic System Measures, ESM, include the AN-BRD-7F Radio Direction Finder; the electronic signal monitors, AN-WLR-1H, and AN-WLR-8(V) 2/6. The ESM suite also includes AN-WSQ-5 and AN-BLD-1 Radio Frequency Intercept Periscope-Mounted Devices, AN-WLQ-4(V) 1, AN-WLR-10, and AN-BLQ-10 Radar Warning Devices. Active electro-magnetic devices in this suite are the AN-BPS-15A and BPS-16 are I- and J-Band navigational piloting radar respectively with a waveguide mounted in a retractable mast, and a waveguide mounted in a periscope. The Combat Data System, CDS MK-2, has an AN-UYK-7 computer-data processing unit.  IBM’s AN-BSY-2 is a re-designed combat system from the decade-earlier one in SEAWOLF.  VIRGINIA’s “Busy-Two” is reprogrammed with 2.2-million lines of ADA code loaded in some 200 Data Processors, AN-UYK-43’s and UYK-44’s. This CDS manages input from an integrated digital upgrade of the AN-UYS-2 Acoustic Signal Processors with their Expanded Directional Frequency Analysis and Recording System. The Torpedo Fire Control System, TFCS, is on a high-speed data bus with a distributed architecture for redundancy. The TFCS is programmed with advanced algorithms for Target Motion Analysis, TMA, and is operated from multi-function consoles that also are used for information management. Target Motion Analysis—the Relative Motion Triangle: A Bearing versus Time Plot—to determine Bearing-Rate. TFCS Stick Diagrams– in the minds of submarine officers. Shallow water is an anathema for submariners because submarines on the surface are exceptionally vulnerable.  Thus, it is said that the best place to sink a submarine is while it is in port.  Does that mean that VIRGINIA cannot operate effectively in shallow water?  Absolutely not!  Are VIRGINIA’s submarine officers aware of the “shallow water” effects when operating within 238 feet of the bottom—seven times the “height” of her displaced volume– and, by geometry, when in 125 feet of water, a 20-degree diving angle will result in “kissing” the bottom?  Of course, they are—we bought them books, and sent them to school.  In a deadly analogy, be aware that a shark can attack you as you wade in shallow water.  Sic ‘em, ‘Ginia! Another disconcerting imprecation to submariners is hearing the “pings” of active sonar followed by the shrill of small, high-speed, super-cavitations screws, which are the distinctive sounds of an acoustic torpedo running to …ruin your entire day. French author Jules Verne, 1828-1905, entertained us with exciting tales of undersea adventure featuring his fictional submarine Nautilus in his book “20,000 Leagues Under the Sea.”  Notably, our USS NAUTILUS (SSN 571) logged much more than 80,000 nm—20,000 leagues—under the sea before her first re-coring; and, VIRGINIA will log over 125,000 leagues of submerged steaming in her service life, without refueling. The nuclear-powered submarine is a far-ranging, very effective, versatile warship for the 21st century—and, the Projection of National Power only requires unilateral action by our NCA. Seemingly, We, the People, still hold some Truths to be self-evident …that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit ofall those that threaten us.  Our battle flag once warned, as did our Navy Jack for a year in 1976: Don’t Tread On Me! The Threat: The Enemy BelowA German Type 214 AIP Submarine. The Type 214 is 213 feet in length with a submerged displacement of 1860 dwt.  They are equipped with two 120-kW Siemens AIP, Air-Independent Propulsion, fuel-cell power units, as well as two 1,000-kW diesel generator sets. The first of four Type 214 submarines for the Greek Navy, the Papanikolis, is pictured above just after delivery and christening at Howaldtswerke Deutsche Werft (HDW), Kiel, on 22 April 2004.  The Papanikolis will be followed by three sisters on order from HDW’s subsidiary Hellenic Shipyard at Skaramanga, Greece, namely, the Pipinos, Matrozos, and Katsonis. The Pipinos is planned to complete in September 2005.  Currently, three of Greece’s four German Type 209/1200 submarines also are being back-fitted with fuel-cell AIP during refits ordered in June 2002.   Portugal ordered two German Type 209-PN submarines on 21 April 2004.  These submarines too will have Siemens AIP systems installed as well as their original diesel-electric generator sets.  The first of these is to be delivered in 2009, and the second a year later.  Both are estimated to bill at $490-million each.  Apparently, the pair is intended to replace two vintage-1960 French-made Daphne Class boats, which are to be retired in 2006. In mid-July 2004, a photograph of a submarine underway on its own power standing out from China’s Wuhan shipyard—some 420 miles inland from Shanghai—was posted on a Chinese Internet site.  The following is a paraphrasing of an article published in The Washington Times as written by Bill Gertz on July 16, 2004. Reportedly, a US DOD official confirmed that the photographed submarine is the lead ship of China’s new YUAN-Class submarine.  Its design can be categorized as a combination of indigenous Chinese hardware and Russian weapons. The PRC’s public exposure of this new class of submarine leads some US defense analysts to opine that China may be building up its naval forces in preparation for an armed confrontation with the US-supported ROC on Taiwan. These US analysts suggest that Chinese militarists may have decided that submarines are the PRC’s first-line of warships for defying US aircraft carriers. Moreover, China also is building two nuclear-powered submarines—one Type 093 fast-attack submarine similar to the Russian VICTOR-III Class, and one Type 094 intercontinental ballistic missile submarine—which should be ready for deployment next year. It is believed that in the coming months the US will continue to strengthen naval forces in the Pacific by the forward deployment of up to six additional nuclear-powered submarines to Guam, and an aircraft carrier naval battler group to the South China. Unlike the quotes attributed to Mister Richard Fisher, the outspoken former White-House advisor and now billed as a “Specialist” on the Chinese military, my take is more like one from a warfare realist: In God We Trust But We Track All Others!  


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Do You Resonate with Shock, Noise and Vibration?

  Video Clip: Click to Watch Two Short Courses from ATI on Vibration, Shock or Noise in Vehicles, Devices, and Equipment If you are concerned with vibration, shock or noise in vehicles, devices, and equipment; then Applied Technology Institute (ATI) short courses maybe for you. Why not take a short course? Our short courses are less […]
Negative Stiffness Vibration Isolator
 
Video Clip: Click to Watch
Two Short Courses from ATI on Vibration, Shock or Noise

in Vehicles, Devices, and Equipment

If you are concerned with vibration, shock or noise in vehicles, devices, and equipment; then Applied Technology Institute (ATI) short courses maybe for you. Why not take a short course? Our short courses are less than a week long and are designed to help you keep your professional knowledge up-to-date. They provide a practical overview of space and defense technologies which furnish a strong foundation for understanding the issues that must be confronted in the use, regulation and development of complex systems. If you are test personnel who conduct or supervise or “contract out” vibration and shock tests, then take the three-day course fundamentals course. It also benefits design, quality and reliability specialists who interface with vibration and shock test activities. If you have some prior acquaintance with vibration or noise fields, then you should sign up for the more advanced four day course. It emphasizes understanding of the relevant phenomena and concepts in order to enable the participants to address a wide range of practical problems insightfully. See sections below for more details on these two short courses from ATI. FUNDAMENTALS OF RANDOM VIBRATION & SHOCK TESTING This three-day course is primarily designed for test personnel who conduct or supervise or “contract out” vibration and shock tests. It also benefits design, quality and reliability specialists who interface with vibration and shock test activities. From this course you will obtain the ability to understand and communicate meaningfully with test personnel, perform basic engineering calculations and evaluate tradeoffs between test equipments’ and procedures. Each student receives the instructor’s brand new, minimal-mathematics, minimal-theory hardbound text Random Vibration & Shock Testing, Measurement, Analysis & Calibration. This 444 page, 4-color book also includes a CDROM with video clips and animations. What you will learn: • How to plan, conduct and evaluate vibration and shock tests and screens. • How to attack vibration and noise problems. • How to make vibration isolation, damping and absorbers work for vibration and noise control. • How noise is generated and radiated, and how it can be reduced. VIBRATION & NOISE CONTROL This course is intended for engineers and scientists concerned with the vibration reduction and quieting of vehicles, devices, and equipment. The course will provide guidance relevant to design, problem solving, and development of improvements. It will emphasize understanding of the relevant phenomena and concepts in order to enable the participants to address a wide range of practical problems insightfully. The instructors will draw on their extensive experience to illustrate the subject matter with examples related to the participant’s specific areas of interest. Although the course will begin with a review and will include some demonstrations, participants ideally should have some prior acquaintance with vibration or noise fields. Each participant will receive a complete set of course notes and the text Noise and Vibration Control Engineering, a $210 value. What you will learn: How to attack vibration and noise problems What means are available for vibration and noise control? How to make vibration isolation, damping, and absorbers work How noise generated and radiated, and how it can be reduced? Course Outline, Samplers, and Notes Determine for yourself the value of these courses before you sign up. • Fundamentals of Random Vibration & Shock Testing course slide sampler • Vibration & Noise Control course slide sampler Our other short courses are designed for individuals involved in planning, designing, building, launching, and operating space and defense systems. See our samples (See Slide Samples) on some of our courses. Or check out the new ATI channel on YouTube. After attending a course you will receive a full set of detailed notes from the class for future reference, as well as a certificate of completion. Please visit our website for more valuable information. About ATI and the Instructors Since 1984, ATI has provided leading-edge public courses and onsite technical training to DoD and NASA personnel, as well as contractors. Whether you are a busy engineer, a technical expert or a project manager, you can enhance your understanding of complex systems in a short time. You will become aware of the basic vocabulary essential to interact meaningfully with your colleagues. Our mission here at ATI is to provide expert training and the highest quality professional development in space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, and signal processing. We are not a one-size-fits-all educational facility. Our short classes include both introductory and advanced courses. ATI’s instructors are world-class experts who are the best in the business. They are carefully selected for their ability to clearly explain advanced technology. Fundamentals of Random Vibration & Shock Testing course Wayne Tustin has since 1995 been president of a specialized engineering school and consultancy he founded in Santa Barbara, CA. His BSEE degree is from the University of Washington, Seattle. He is a licensed Professional Engineer – Quality in the State of California. Wayne’s first encounter with vibration was at Boeing/Seattle, performing what later came to be called modal tests, on the XB-52 prototype of that highly reliable platform. Subsequently he headed field service and technical training for a manufacturer of electrodynamic shakers, before establishing another specialized school on which he left his name. Wayne has written several books and literally hundreds of articles dealing with practical aspects of vibration and shock measurement and testing. Vibration & Noise Control course Dr. Eric Ungar has specialized in research and consulting in vibration and noise for more than 40 years, published over 200 technical papers, and translated and revised Structure-Borne Sound. He has led short courses at the Pennsylvania State University for over 25 years and has presented numerous seminars worldwide. Dr. Ungar has served as President of the Acoustical Society of America, as President of the Institute of Noise Control Engineering, and as Chairman of the Design Engineering Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ASME honored him with its Trent-Crede Medal in Shock and Vibration. ASA awarded him the Per Bruel Gold Medal for Noise Control and Acoustics for his work on vibrations of complex structures, structural damping, and isolation. Dr. James Moore has, for the past twenty years, concentrated on the transmission of noise and vibration in complex structures, on improvements of noise and vibration control methods, and on the enhancement of sound quality. He has developed Statistical Energy Analysis models for the investigation of vibrations and noise complex structures as submarines, helicopters, and automobiles and has been instrumental in the acquisition of corresponding data bases. He has participated in the development of active noise control systems, noise reduction coating and signal conditioning means, as well as in the presentation of numerous short courses and industrial training programs. Times, Dates, and Locations Fundamentals of Random Vibration & Shock Testing Sep 20-22, 2011 Detroit, MI Oct 4-6, 2011 Santa Clarita, CA Nov 7-9, 2011 Acton, MA Vibration & Noise Control Sep 26-29, 2011 Boston, MA Mar 12-15, 2012 Columbia, MD Apr 30-May 3, 2012 Boston, MA  

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Probing the Ocean for Submarines – Additional Information

Title: Probing the Ocean for Submarines: A History of the AN/SQS-26 Long-Range Echo-Ranging Sonar (2nd Edition) Author: Thaddeus G. Bell Publisher: Peninsula Publishing ISBN: 978-0-932146-26-7 Pages: 264 Binding: Soft cover This book presents the history of the design and development from 1955 to 1975 of the AN/SQS-26 echo-ranging sonar for submarine detection from ocean escorts […]
Title: Probing the Ocean for Submarines: A History of the AN/SQS-26 Long-Range Echo-Ranging Sonar (2nd Edition) Author: Thaddeus G. Bell Publisher: Peninsula Publishing ISBN: 978-0-932146-26-7 Pages: 264 Binding: Soft cover This book presents the history of the design and development from 1955 to 1975 of the AN/SQS-26 echo-ranging sonar for submarine detection from ocean escorts (DEs). The sonar was the first to utilize long-range bottom reflection and convergence zone paths, in addition to the more conventional surface-duct paths. These long-range paths are little affected by submarine depth. In deep water a “bottom bounce” active detection range out to as far as 25 miles is possible, where the bottom is sufficiently reflective. In shallow water the bottom is normally reflective enough to permit echo ranging out to as much as 20 miles via multiple bottom reflections. If the water depth is sufficient, a “convergence zone” is also available from deep refraction paths converging over a narrow annular detection zone with an outer extent up to 40 miles from an echo-ranging source. The book describes AN/SQS-26 echo-ranging detection performance using these long-range paths against surface ships of opportunity, U.S. submarines and Soviet submarines on patrol. Starting about 1975, digital upgrades of the original design were produced for destroyers, guided missile destroyers, and guided missile cruisers. The upgrades are currently being installed at this writing (2011) on the new construction of today’s DDG-51 class guided missile destroyers. In the early 1980s the major characteristics of this surface ship active sonar were also incorporated into the bow array sonar of USN submarines. The historical information presented should be of interest to operational commands, sonar designers, research scientists, undersea warfare tacticians and those involved in resource-allocation decisions for research, development and production programs.

Probing the Ocean for Submarines. A History of the AN/SQS-26 Long-Range, Echo-Ranging Sonar.

This is the story of one of the most challenging programs of the Cold War era.  Combining the knowledge and craftsmanship of engineering, naval architecture, ocean science, and operational expertise, the AN/SQS-26 program’s success was a key factor in the U.S. Navy’s quest for ASW superiority.  As with any undertaking of this scale, there needed […]
Probing the Ocean for Submarines. A History of the AN/SQS-26 Long-Range, Echo-Ranging Sonar.This is the story of one of the most challenging programs of the Cold War era.  Combining the knowledge and craftsmanship of engineering, naval architecture, ocean science, and operational expertise, the AN/SQS-26 program’s success was a key factor in the U.S. Navy’s quest for ASW superiority.  As with any undertaking of this scale, there needed to be a “hero,” an individual within the organization who had the vision, in-depth knowledge, perseverance, and voice to steer the sonar program through the difficult design, development, testing, and operational employment stages.  That hero was Thaddeus G. Bell at the Naval Underwater Systems Center, New London, CT. Above was a quote from Rear Admiral (retired) Richard Pittenger , who was also a leader in the field of Navy sonar. You can purchase the book from Peninsula Publishing. Peninsula Publishing 26666 Birch Hill Way Los Altos Hills, CA 94022 (650) 948-2511 phone (680) 948-5004 fax cwiseman@peninsulapublishing.com Download parts of the book here
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Interested in submarines? Learn more about USS Virginia

Interested in submarines? Enjoyed Captain Ray Wellborn’s posts? https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/08/the-efficacy-of-submarine-warfare/ https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/11/the-evolution-of-a-submarine-as-a-warship/ https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/11/the-advent-of-submarine-warfare/ You can also preview Captain Wellborn’s course slides here https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/11/ati-offers-submarines-and-anti-submarine-warfare/ Please read on and learn more about USS Virginia On July 4, 2004, the U.S. Navy commissioned the lead ship in a new class of nuclear-powered attack sub-marine: USS VIRGINIA (SSN 774). The new submarine […]
Interested in submarines? Enjoyed Captain Ray Wellborn’s posts? https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/08/the-efficacy-of-submarine-warfare/ https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/11/the-evolution-of-a-submarine-as-a-warship/ https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/11/the-advent-of-submarine-warfare/ You can also preview Captain Wellborn’s course slides here https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/11/ati-offers-submarines-and-anti-submarine-warfare/ Please read on and learn more about USS Virginia On July 4, 2004, the U.S. Navy commissioned the lead ship in a new class of nuclear-powered attack sub-marine: USS VIRGINIA (SSN 774). The new submarine warship is 377 feet in length, 34 feet in the beam, has a draft of 30.5 feet at the designer’s waterline and displaces 7,800 dead weight tons submerged. She can accommodate a ship’s company of 134 including 14 officers. VIRGINIA’s length-to-breadth ratio of 11.09 is com-parable to an 11.01 for LOS ANGELES-Class submarines with a 33-foot beam, and is somewhat more than SEAWOLF’s 8.4 with a 42-foot beam, but a little less than Ohio’s 13.3, also with a 42-foot beam. Officially, the U.S. Nary will neither confirm nor deny any U.S. submarine’s speed to be greater than 20 knots, nor any test-depth to be greater than 400 feet. According to open liter- attire, however, VIRGINIA is powered by a S9G pressurized water reactor, made by General Electric, which will not require re-coring for the life of the ship./ Her propulsion plant is rated to produce 40,000 shaft horsepower for a single shaft, and sustain a maximum rated submerged speed of 34 knots. The wall-thickness and diameter of VIRGINIA’s inner pressure hull of cold- rolled, high-yield strength steel, with scrupulously designed hull-penetrations and conscientious seam-welds, allows submarine design engineers to impose a safe-diving test-depth of 1,600 feet. Furthermore, this innovative design reduces the number of needed hull-penetrations with eight non-hull penetrating antennae packages. To meet yet another top-level requirement VIRGINIA is fitted with SEAWOLF-level acoustic quietness for stealth, as well as acoustic tile cladding for active acoustic signal absorption. For additional tasking, VIRGINIA is fitted with an integral nine-man lockout chamber for use with the Advanced SEAL (sea, air and land) Delivery System (ASDS), which essentially is a mini-submarine capable of dry-delivery of a SEAL team. Moreover, the internal torpedo magazine space arrangement can be adapted to provide 2,400 cubic feet of space for up to 40 SEAL team members arid their equipment. And, VIRGINIA is capable of carrying and operating advanced unmanned underwater vehicles, wake-homing detection equipment and a deployable active hi-static sonar source. VIRGINIA is an extremely capable submarine and, in the hands of a well- trained, experienced ship’s company skilled in the operational arts of submarine warfare, has an incisive ability for both deep-ocean and shallow- water operations of all kinds, including antisubmarine warfare. So, for comparison to early strivings for more precise navigation on the open sea, consider the most sophisticated state-of-the art computer-data processors, which precisely calculate the output of an absolutely ingenious arrangement of gyros and accelerometers as they sense the slightest nano-scale movement. This ever-so-precise, self-contained navigational system is fitfully named SINS, the Ship’s Inertial Navigation System. In the modem era, the encapsulated inner workings of SINS can be held in the palm of your hands. But, at the top of the list, are the technological advancements resident in the Common Submarine Radio Room (CSRR) in that a U.S. submarine can be in constant communication with the submarine operating authority while submerged at sea anywhere in the oceans of the world For perspective and historical comparison of technological advances, note that the first nationally authorized submarine warship was not officially commissioned until 1900, while the first trans-Atlantic radio-telegraph was not operational until 1901. VIRGINIA’s modern CSRR for entering the 21st century is for a worldwide battle space. A modernized ship self-defense system will replace the advanced combat direction system in VIRGINIA-Class upgrades. All the software programs for the command-control system module in VIRGINIA are compatible with the Joint Military Command Information System. The Global Command-Control System (GCCS) is a multi-service information management system for maritime users that displays and disseminates data through an extensive array of common interfaces. GCCS is also a multi-service information management system for maritime users that can display and disseminate data through an extensive array of common interfaces. GCCS is also a multi-sensor data-fusion system for command analyses and decision- making. Thus, in the main, it is utilized for overall force coordination The ocean surveillance information system receives, processes, displays and disseminates joint-service information regarding fixed and mobile targets on land and at sea. The innovative design of the upgraded Automated Digital Network System (ADNS) encompasses all radio frequency circuits for routing and switching both strategic and tactical command control communication computer information (C41) with an internet-like transmission control protocol. In doing so, ADNS links battle group units with each other and with the digital information system network. The ADNS now has 224 ship-based units, and four shore-based sites. Network operation centers are linked to three naval computer and telecommunication area master stations, plus one in the Persian Gulf at Bahrain. The Global Broadcast Service is the follow-on for U.S. Navy ultra-high- frequency radio communication via satellite. By 2009, the advanced wide- band system will be the communication upgrade for all U.S. submarines and surface ships, and there is a version planned for U.S. aircraft installation that is under study, Virginia’s combat system suite satisfies a top-level requirement to counter multiple threats with a mission-essential-need statement that details a very effective set of acoustic sensors. The suite features two reel-able towed, linear sonar arrays, the TB-l6 and the thin-line TB-29. Just inside the thin-skinned acoustic window in the bow section of the outer hull is a very sophisticated, state-of-the-art active-passive spherical sonar array, the AN/BQQ-5E. In addition, there are wide-aperture flank-mounted passive sonar arrays; a keel and fin-mounted high sonic frequency active sonar for under-the-ice ranging and maneuvering, and for mine detection and avoidance; a medium sonic frequency active sonar for target ranging; a sonar sensor for intercept of active-ranging signals from an attacking torpedo; and, a self- noise acoustic monitoring system. Moreover, all acoustic systems have advanced signal processors and, where appropriate, algorithms are programmed for beam forming. The Electronic System Measures suite features the AN/BRD-7F radio direction finder; the electronic signal monitors, AN/WLR-lH and AN/WLR-8(V2/6); the AN/WSQ-5 and AN/BLD-1 radio frequency intercept periscope-mounted devices; and the AN/WLQ-4(V1), AN/WLR-l0 and AN/BLQ-l0 radar warning devices. The AN/BPS-15A and BPS-16 are I and J-band navigational piloting radars, respectively, with each having separate wave-guides—one mounted inside a retractable mast and the other mounted inside a periscope. Virginia has four 21-inch-diameter internally loaded torpedo tubes with storage cradles for a combination of an additional 22 torpedoes, missiles, mines, and 20-foot-long, 21-inch diameter Autonomous Underwater Vehicles. In the free-flooding area between the outer and inner hulls, just aft of the bow-mounted AN/BQQ-5E spherical sonar array is Virginia’s Vertical Launch System, comprised of twelve externally loaded 21-inch diameter launch tubes for Tomahawk, the Sea-Launched-Cruise-Missile (SLCM). Shallow water is an anathema for submariners because submarines on the surface are exceptionally vulnerable. Thus, it is said that the best place to sink a submarine is while it is in port. Does that mean that Virginia cannot operate effectively in shallow water?Absolutely not! Another disconcerting imprecation to submariners is hearing the high-pitch “pings— active sonar accompanied by the shrill of cavitations from small, high-speed screws, which are the distinctive sounds of an acoustic torpedo running to ruin your entire day. French author Jules Verne (1825-1905) entertained readers with exciting tales of undersea adventure featuring his fictional submarine Nautilus in his book 20,000 Leagues Under The Sea. Notably, USS Nautilus (SSN 571) logged much more than 20,000 leagues under the sea—like, 80,000 nautical mile before her first re-coring, and Virginia will log over 125,000 leagues of submerged steaming in her service life– without refueling. The nuclear-powered submarine is a far-ranging, very effective, versatile warship for the 21st century—and, the projection of national power by ASDS and SLCMs from international waters only requires unilateral action by the National Command Authority. _____________________________________ Over a 30-year U.S. Navy career Captain Ray Wellborn served some 13 years in submarines. He graduated with a B.S. from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1959, a M.S. in Electrical Engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School in 1969, and a M.A. from the Naval War College in 1976. He was a senior lecturer for marine engineering at Texas A&M University Galveston from 1992 to 1996, and currently is a consultant for maritime affairs, and a once-a-year part-time instructor for the Applied Technology Institute’s three-day course titled “Introduction to Submarines—and, Their Combat Systems.     You might also want to visit the home site of USS Virginia veterans and their families. http://www.ussvirginiabase.org/  
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ATI Offers Submarines and Anti-Submarine Warfare

If you enjoyed the previous post on Submarines and Submarine Warfare by Captain Ray Wellborn, https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/08/the-efficacy-of-submarine-warfare/ https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/11/the-evolution-of-a-submarine-as-a-warship/ https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/11/the-advent-of-submarine-warfare/ you will be interested in ATI’s Submarines and Anti-Submarine Warfare course.  This three-day course presents the fundamental philosophy of submarine design, construction, and stability as well as the utilization of submarines as cost-effective warships at sea. A thumbnail […]
If you enjoyed the previous post on Submarines and Submarine Warfare by Captain Ray Wellborn, https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/08/the-efficacy-of-submarine-warfare/ https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/11/the-evolution-of-a-submarine-as-a-warship/ https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/11/the-advent-of-submarine-warfare/ you will be interested in ATI’s Submarines and Anti-Submarine Warfare course.  This three-day course presents the fundamental philosophy of submarine design, construction, and stability as well as the utilization of submarines as cost-effective warships at sea. A thumbnail history of waging war by coming up from below the surface of the sea relates prior gains—and, prior set-backs. Today’s submarine tasking is discussed in consonance with the strategy and policy of the US, and the goals, objectives, mission, functions, tasks, responsibilities, and roles of the US Navy. The foreboding efficacy of submarine warfare is analyzed referencing some enthralling calculations for its Benefits-to-Cost, in that Submarines Sink Ships! You can preview the course slides here:  
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The Advent of Submarine Warfare

The Advent of Submarine Warfare.  The epoch for Submarine Warfare, for all intents and purposes, opened with the brusque plume of an exploding torpedo launched by a German U-boat sinking SS LUSITANIA, a British passenger liner, off the southwest coast of Ireland on May 7, 1915, leaving 1154 dead, including 114 Americans.[1] Patently, the submarine […]
The Advent of Submarine Warfare.  The epoch for Submarine Warfare, for all intents and purposes, opened with the brusque plume of an exploding torpedo launched by a German U-boat sinking SS LUSITANIA, a British passenger liner, off the southwest coast of Ireland on May 7, 1915, leaving 1154 dead, including 114 Americans.[1] Patently, the submarine evolved from a very awkward beginning into a very versatile, very stealthy, and very cost-effective warship.  The following Benefit-to-Cost, B/C, analyses compare the costs of ships sank by warships to the costs of those warships lost in the effort.  Statistically, this B/C portrays the efficacy of the submarine warship as a very cost-effective, ship-sinking interdictor of ocean sea-lanes. In WW-I, German U-boats sank 5,708 merchant ships, and 62 warships. To absorb the magnitude of those numbers, you may have to read them twice-over so as not to trivialize their significance—or, their economic significance.  These sinking numbers equate to some 11,018,865 dead-weight tons (dwt) of steel in merchant-ship hulls plus their consigned cargo, and 538,535 dwt of warships.  Figuratively, and literally, that’s a colossal “sunk cost.” This sunk cost can be estimated parametrically to be $39.4-billion—at the time-value of money for 1918.  Then, dividing that “Benefit” by the “Cost” of the lost of 178 U-boats estimated parametrically to be $1.3-billion, yields a B/C ratio of 30.5! Notably, a B/C of 1.0 is breakeven, doubling your money is 2.0, and 4.0 is considered a beneficial venture. There was a lot to be learned in the two intervening decades between WW-I and WW-II.  Ardent studies of the technologies and techniques associated with Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) were lessons that had to be learned by the “Hunter,” and the “Hunted.” Inevitably, as if portended by the foreboding Winds of War, German U-boats in WW-II sank 23.4-million dwt of allied shipping plus their cargo, which together is estimated to be $78.5-billion.  Dividing that by the lost of 781 U-boats estimated to be $5.7-billion yields a B/C of 13.8. In comparison to the greater B/C ratio in WW-I, one deduces that ASW in the Atlantic apparently helped to cut this telltale ratio by more than half.  I doubt though that this lesser B/C was any solace to those having to stomach the lost of $78.5-billion– at the time-value of money for 1945. Meanwhile, On the Far Side, how did US submarines fare in WW-II against the Eastern island empire of Japan in the Pacific? US submarines sank 4.9-million dwt of Japanese warships, and merchant ships plus their cargo, which together is estimated to be $16.3-billion.  Dividing that Benefit by the Cost of the lost of 52 US submarines materially estimated to be $355.3-million yields a B/C of 45.9![2] At the beginning of 1943, as another statistical example, over the sea-lane between Taiwan and the Philippines at the Bashi Channel choke-point for the Luzon Straits connecting the South China Sea with the Philippine Sea, Japanese oil-tankers were transporting some 1.5-million barrels of crude oil per month for Japan’s refineries to make distillate fuels for their war-machines.  That sea-lane was interdicted by US submarines, literally torpedoing Japan’s oil-imports.  By the end of 1944, this crude-oil supply had been reduced by 80 percent to something less than 300,000 barrels per month. US submarines, with only 2% of all US Navy personnel, were credited with sinking 55% of all Japanese merchant ships, and 29% of all Japanese warships. This era of submarine warfare, however, is still a “work-in-progress.”  It began auspiciously on May 7, 1915, when a German U-boat torpedoed and sank SS LUSITANIA off the southwest coast of Ireland.  For the moment, its log’s tab is set on May 21, 1982, when a British nuclear-powered attack submarine, HMS CONQUEROR, torpedoed and sank Argentina’s battle cruiser BELGRADO off the Argentine coast in the approaches to the Falkland Islands—a 150-year-old British colony that occupying Argentine armed forces two weeks later surrendered back to British armed forces on June 4, 1982. The lead-in photo for this closing is a subtle depiction of the forebodingness of Submarine Warfare for several significant reasons.  It could be said to be a chilling photo because it is of a submarine warship entering a German port. In 1936, Chancellor Adolf Hitler officially opened the Kiel Canal, and relegated the inaugural passage to one of Der Kriegsmarine Unterseebooten. So, the Third Reich’s construction of the Kiel Canal may have been for other means to bolster Germany’s maritime economy.
  Thus, HARDER’s transit of the Kiel Canal at the end of Kieler Woche could be deemed to have been some surrealistic scheme to top-off the Kiel Canal’s twenty-fifth anniversary with a transit of a Type XXI U-boat.  But perhaps, I just consider this photo to be significant because I am the young submarine officer pictured on deck with the Anchor Detail as HARDER stood in to Kiel that day.  Nevertheless, it remains: Submarines Sink Ships!

[1] Notably, in 1916, the year after a U-boat sank SS LUISITANIA, USS E-1 (SS 24), which was 135 feet in length with a submerged displacement of about 400 dwt, became the first submarine to cross the Atlantic under her own power, that is, the first trans-Atlantic crossing by a coal-oil-powered submarine.
[2] Notably, this B/C was higher than that for German U-boats because by my deductive reasoning the US tactics of submarine approach and attack were with more stealth, and that ASW by the Japanese Navy was less intense and less effective. Read previous posts by Captain Wellborn here https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/08/the-efficacy-of-submarine-warfare/ https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/11/the-evolution-of-a-submarine-as-a-warship/
 

The Evolution Of The Submarine As A Warship

THE EVOLUTION OF A SUBMARINE—AS A WARSHIP. At the close of the 19th century, the hail heard around the world was Britannia Rules the Sea. Ships of the Royal Navy were high profile targets for their enemies—both foreign and domestic. Douglas Porch, in his book The Path to Victory published in 2004, by Farrar, Straus, […]
THE EVOLUTION OF A SUBMARINE—AS A WARSHIP. At the close of the 19th century, the hail heard around the world was Britannia Rules the Sea. Ships of the Royal Navy were high profile targets for their enemies—both foreign and domestic. Douglas Porch, in his book The Path to Victory published in 2004, by Farrar, Straus, and Giroux in New York, revealed that Irish revolutionaries in 1876, known as the Fenian Brotherhood, contracted John P. Holland, an Irish-American who had immigrated to the US in 1872, to develop a way to sneak up on British ships from underwater, and sink them. Holland’s work began in Paterson, New Jersey, on the Passaic River, and then moved to New York harbor. The Fenian’s, however, withdrew their support of Holland’s research when he failed to meet their timetables. Private investors though kept Holland afloat. By 1898, Holland had produced his sixth prototype—and, the US Navy was ready to buy. On April 11, 1900, the US Navy purchased Holland-VI for $150,000; and, for the record, the US Navy Submarine Force was born. Then, on October 13, 1900, USS HOLLAND (SS 1) duly was commissioned, Lieutenant H. H. Caldwell, US Navy, Commanding.   HOLLAND was 53.3 feet overall, with a maximum beam of 10.3 feet, a cruising draft of 8.5 feet, and a submerged displacement of 75 deadweight tons, dwt. HOLLAND was constructed with fitted steel-plate attached to angle-iron rib-frames that had been forged into perfect circles starting at 10.25 feet for the central one, and then decreasing to end-closures to form a parabolic, spindle-shaped hull. Safe test-depth was set at 80 feet to correspond to an external, water-head, crushing pressure of 35 psi, pounds-per-square-inch. HOLLAND featured an ingenious dual-propulsion system. A 50-horsepower Otto (gasoline) engine was geared to drive a propulsion-screw– a propeller– directly, or by a friction clutch could be connected as a dynamotor for charging HOLLAND’s electric battery. This battery then could be switched to provide electrical energy to an electric motor that by friction clutch could be connected to the propulsion shaft. HOLLAND’s maximum speed on the surface by gasoline-powered engine was rated at 7 knots; and, when topped-up with fuel, HOLLAND had an endurance-range of about 1500 nautical miles, nm, at her engine’s maximum continuous rating for making turns for 7 knots. When submerged, HOLLAND’s fully charged battery discharging at the six-hour rate had the ampere-hour capacity for electric motor propulsion at a rated maximum submerged speed of 5 knots for a submerged endurance-range of about 30 miles! And, to go in harm’s way, HOLLAND had a single internally loaded 18-inch diameter tube that extended through the pressure hull in the bow for launching the new, improved Whitehead diving-torpedo Mark-III that was 11.65 feet in length, and rated at 30 knots for a run of 2000 yards. Moreover, HOLLAND was designed with space-and-weight accommodation for two torpedo reloads. Submarines were now stand-off warships. Submarine Weapon Development.  The British, however, lagged in early submarine development.  The Admiralty apparently thought submarine attacks were dishonorable; and, declared that captured submariners would be treated as pirates, and be hanged, accordingly. After Britain’s rivals at sea commissioned Holland to build submarines for them, the Admiralty changed its tune.  As what could be expected, Holland later profited from selling submarines to that same Admiralty whose fleet he once had been paid to sink. It is interesting to note that it was the US inventor Robert Fulton who in 1805, after studying the design of Bushnell’s Turtle, positively demonstrated in a weapon-trial the feasibility of sinking a ship by detonating an explosive charge against its underwater hull. Some sixty years later in 1866, two years after the submarine CSS H. L. HUNLEY was lost detonating a torpedo attached to a bow-sprit spar that sank USS HOUSATONIC in Charleston harbor, Robert Whitehead, a Scottish inventor, demonstrated his advanced development model of an auto-mobile torpedo—to the Germans. At the behest of officials representing the German Kaiser’s government in Austria, Whitehead demonstrated an unmanned, underwater vehicle that was a self-propelled, lighter-than-water dirigible—a “diving submarine.”  It essentially was an automated-mobile—an auto-mobile—underwater vehicle that could deliver a “numbing” explosive charge—a torpedo—to detonate against the underwater hull of a target-ship, and sink her—from a stand-off distance! As the world turned into the 20th century, a booming Industrial Revolution seemingly elevated science and technology as if they were its King and Queen, their supreme overseer.  It was like there had been a royal Coronation of Science & Technology. Figuratively, a silver spoon was placed in the mouth of each new steamship born in modernized shipways.  They indeed were capital-intensive assets.  This was Big Time financing. With the continuing evolution of submarines as reliable warships, torpedo advancements burgeoned to keep pace with them.  For instance, by the onset of WW-I, US submarines had the new Bliss-Leavitt Mark-X torpedo, which weighed in at a hefty 1,628 pounds with a 326-pound warhead, stood 17.1 feet in length with an 18-inch diameter-girth, and ran 6,000 yards (3 nm) with a rated speed of 35 knots. Now, enter the most efficient, the most cost-effective, the most peerless shipping interdictor, the most devastating business-loss inflictor, and most menacing national economic strangler of them all: Der Kriegsmarine Unterseebooten! The Enemy Below. During WW-I the word “U-boat” entered the world’s lexicon as a contraction of Unterseeboot, the German labeling of their new submarine warships. U-boat also entered the world’s consciousness as an offensive instrument of warfare that devastated commercial shipping. Contrary to popular belief, the crews of Germany’s feted Ubootwaffe were not all volunteers.  Once committed though, each German submarine-sailor soon came to understand that he must take pride in being a member of a unique undersea brotherhood.  Thus, the sailors of this brotherhood– this Ubootwaffe– became bound together by an intense camaraderie, by ever-present dangers, and by a unity of purpose more powerful than any known to other sailors. So, with over-extended capital investments, the British built new, capital-intensive, ocean-going steamships to bolster their colonized trade—strategic imports—from overseas.  The strategic plan of the Germans—Britain’s “new” continental rival– was to interdict British capital-intensive, economic assets that sailed those seas, and do so with stealth and surprise from a hidden position just below the surface of the sea. Germany set about to build and crew cost-effective U-boats whose individual tactical ship-sinking combats could be managed strategically to achieve their national goal of Economic Equality with their rival Great Britain.  These U-boats were armed with a German version of an advanced Whitehead torpedo that very effectively—very cost-effectively– delivered an explosive charge to a target-ship at a stand-off distance that typically was less than half a mile even though the torpedo had a maximum run of three miles. These U-boats featured a dynamo with an innovative design of an internal combustion engine that was not fueled with gasoline—and, did not require an ignition system.  Thus, this “rational heat engine” was more efficient, and safer, than gasoline-fueled ones.       In 1897, after a major re-design of the lubrication system for this coal-dust fueled, single cylinder, four cycle pump-engine for flooded mineshafts, the first successful engineering development model of a liquid-fueled, “coal-oil,” engine was completed by its then-bankrupt inventor in collaboration with the Krupp firm and an Augsburg-Nuremberg machine shop, Maschinefabrik Augsberg Nürnburg– MAN. Some fifteen years later, in 1912, a year before the death of the engine’s impoverished inventor, the US Navy procured a number of them from New London Ship and Engine Company, NELSECO, teamed with Vickers– a British shipbuilder licensed by this German conglomerate.  These engines were the coal-oil fueled, four cycle version having four cylinders with a 12.75-inch bore and a 13.5 stroke that were rated 275 BHP @400 RPM.  They were scheduled for installation in E-1 Class (ex-SKIPJACK) US-submarines to replace the scheduled gasoline-powered prime movers for the dynamos in their dual-propulsion hybrid system.[1] In 1908, the German Navy favored the lighter (pounds-per-horsepower), two cycle version; but, in preparatory expediency for their inevitable war plans, they proceeded to fit all their U-boats with a six-cylinder, four cycle version of this now-feted engine as designed by its fatherly inventor whose name they bear– Rudolf Diesel, 1858-1913. The rest of the story is legendary. Diesel Boats Forever!
 
[1] Notably, on March 5, 1912, a month before SS TITANTIC sank, President Taft established the Atlantic Submarine Flotilla– Lieutenant Chester W. Nimitz, US Navy, Commanding. Continue to read here https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/11/the-advent-of-submarine-warfare/ Read the previous post by Captain Wellborn here https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/08/the-efficacy-of-submarine-warfare/    
 
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