Yeah, But What If?

Submarine accidents which result in the submarine careening to the sea bottom are spectacular in Hollywood movies and video games, but they do not happen often in real life.  In fact, for the U.S., we have not lost a submarine to the depths since 1968 when USS Scorpion was lost with 99 souls due ( […]

Submarine accidents which result in the submarine careening to the sea bottom are spectacular in Hollywood movies and video games, but they do not happen often in real life.  In fact, for the U.S., we have not lost a submarine to the depths since 1968 when USS Scorpion was lost with 99 souls due ( most likely) to an inadvertent activation of a battery or a torpedo.  Prior to that, in 1963, USS Thresher was lost with 129 souls due to ( most likely ) a piping failure during a deep dive.  Due to actions taken as a result of lessons learned from those two mishaps, the U.S. has not had a major submarine loss since then.  The safety record for U.S. Submarines since 1968 has been remarkable, and the envy of other countries.

Yeah, but what if?

To be prudent, the U.S. must assume that there will be submarine accidents in the future, even if they are not U.S. submarines.  For this reason, the U.S. continues to maintain a force dedicated to the rescue of downed submarines.  Undersea Rescue Command (URC) is the U.S. Navy’s official command for the rescue of sailors during a submarine casualty anywhere in the world.   If you would like to learn more about this command, you can read about it here.

The blog author has had some personal experience working with the Undersea Rescue Command, and all comments that follow are the authors personal opinions, and not an official opinion of the U.S. Navy or Applied Technology Institute.  In case you missed that, please go back and read it again.

Two significant issues that confront the Undersea Rescue Command are funding and localization. 

The funding issue arises from the fact that our submarines are so safe, and our safety record is so good, there is a hesitance to pay too much attention ( and funding ) to an organization which may not ever be called into service.  Unfortunately, there is not much the technical community can do about that; it will have to fall upon the Public Relations Office at U.S. Navy. 

Localization, however, is a problem which the technical community can help solve.  When a submarine goes to the bottom, the Undersea Rescue Command jumps into action, and reports to the vicinity of the accident very quickly.  Unfortunately, the Undersea Rescue Command cannot start their rescue mission until the precise location of the sunken submarine is known, and that is often a difficult problem.  Until the submarine is located, the rescue can not actually begin.  Often, in exercises, or in other countries, by the time the submarine is located, it has become a recovery mission rather than a rescue mission. 

So, how can we simplify the task of locating a downed submarine?  Some of the answer lies in the concept of operations, or things that a distressed submarine can do to facilitate the search for them.  Some of the answer lies in advances in sonars and sonar signal processing.  And the rest of the answer lies in innovative new ideas, for example, using AUVs or UUVs to find distressed submarines ( cool idea ). 

Applied Technology Institute is offering several courses in the coming months that will help you brush up on your skills, so that you can apply them to this problem.  You can find information about our Sonar Signal Processing course, and register for the course here.  Additionally, you can find information about our Passive and Active Acoustics Fundamentals course, and register for the course here.  Lastly, a full listing of ATI’s Acoustics and Sonar Engineering Courses ( including AUV and UUV courses ) can be found here.  If you are interested in a course which is not currently on the schedule, please let us know, so we can try to schedule an offering soon.

As I said earlier, the author has had the pleasure of working with the Undersea Rescue Command several years ago, and was very impressed with the hard work and dedication exhibited by all members of their team.  The following picture shows me and the rest of the JHU/APL Team that worked with the URC.  We are posing inside of the Pressurized Rescue Module which travels to the distressed submarine to perform the rescue.  Although no one would ever want to experience being on a submarine in distress, they should feel encouraged that a team as dedicated and qualified as URC is on the job.

Video – USS South Dakota SSN 790 will join the U.S. Navy submarine force in February 2019

Take a Tour of America’s Newest Nuclear Submarine Virginia classUSS South Dakota SSN 790 will join the U.S. Navy submarine force in February 2019 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICSOverall Length: 377 ftExtreme Beam: 33 ftMax Navigational Draft: 32 ftFull Displacement: 7800 tons Hull Material: Steel hull, steel superstructure.No. of Propellers: 1Propulsion Type: Steam Turbine (Nuclear)Accommodations: Officers: 15Enlisted: 117Total […]

Take a Tour of America’s Newest Nuclear Submarine Virginia class
USS South Dakota SSN 790 will join the U.S. Navy submarine force in February 2019

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Overall Length: 377 ft
Extreme Beam: 33 ft
Max Navigational Draft: 32 ft
Full Displacement: 7800 tons

Hull Material: Steel hull, steel superstructure.
No. of Propellers: 1
Propulsion Type: Steam Turbine (Nuclear)
Accommodations: Officers: 15
Enlisted: 117
Total 132 people onboard

Video Link:
https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/navy-ships/a25780066/uss-south-dakota-americas-newest-nuclear-submarine/

Also see ATI’s submarines course.
https://aticourses.com/Submarines_and_Submariners_Introduction.html

Summary


This three-day course is designed for engineers in the field of submarine R&D and Operational Test and Evaluation. It is an introductory course presenting the fundamental philosophy of submarine design, submerged operation and combat system employment as they are managed by a battle-tested submarine organization that all-in-all make a US submarine a very cost-effective warship at sea—and under it.

Today’s US submarine tasking is discussed in consonance with the strategy and policy of the US, and the goals, objectives, mission, functions, tasks, responsibilities, and roles of the US Navy as they are so funded. Submarine warfare is analyzed referencing some calculations for a Benefits-to-Cost analysis, in that, Submarines Sink Ships!

From this course you will gain a better understanding of submarine warships being stealth-oriented, cost-effective combat systems at sea. Those who have worked with specific submarine sub-systems will find that this course will clarify the rationale and essence of their interface with one another. Attendees will receive copies of the presentation along with some relevant white papers.

What You Will Learn
Differences in submarine types (SSN/SSBN/ SSGN)
Submarine onboard organization and day to day operations
Basic Fundamentals of submarine systems and sensors
Submarine Mission profiles
Basics of Submarine Warfare tactical and operational control
How submarines support national military objectives
Makeup and function of the Submarine Support Enterprise
How the sea impacts submarine operations
Submarine Maintenance Cycles – Supporting the Tip of the Spear


Differences in submarine types (SSN/SSBN/ SSGN)
Submarine onboard organization and day to day operations
Basic Fundamentals of submarine systems and sensors
Submarine Mission profiles
Basics of Submarine Warfare tactical and operational control
How submarines support national military objectives
Makeup and function of the Submarine Support Enterprise
How the sea impacts submarine operations
Submarine Maintenance Cycles – Supporting the Tip of the Spear

Bombers and Subs and Missiles, oh my!

Speaking for myself, I always considered the nuclear triad to include bombers, submarines, and missiles, but, I was wrong. Sandra Erwin points out in her Space News article, we really need to remember that these three components of the triad could not be effective without two other complimentary components, a competent work force to operate […]

Speaking for myself, I always considered the nuclear triad to include bombers, submarines, and missiles, but, I was wrong. Sandra Erwin points out in her Space News article, we really need to remember that these three components of the triad could not be effective without two other complimentary components, a competent work force to operate them, and a modern and reliable Nuclear Command, Control and Communications ( NC3 ) network.

Lt. Gen Jack Weinstein, Air Force Deputy Chief of Staff for Strategic Deterrence and Nuclear Integration recently pointed out that nuclear modernization efforts cannot be strictly focused on subs, bombers, and missiles, but must also be concerned about modernizing the NC3 system, causing him to remark “The Triad also means space capability.” The Nuclear Posture Review reported that many of the components of the current NC3 system are antiquated technology which has not been modernized in almost 30 years. 

Sandra Erwin reports that the Air Force does have programs under way to modernize communications and early-warning satellites, but integration of these new systems will be very complex, and highly trained work force will be needed to build the systems.

Interestingly, Lt. Gen Weinstein has confidence in the military’s ability to train their people to operate these systems, but he expresses concern about educating the civilian workforce which will also need to be involved.

Applied Technology Institute (ATI) can play an important role in preparing the workforce which will support the future nuclear Triad since it offers a diverse collection of courses which cover all of the domains where the Triad will need to operate; air, sea, and space. Please consider looking at the current set of course offerings at ATI and consider taking some of our courses to better position yourself to make significant contributions to solving the complex problems associated with Strategic Deterrence in the future.  

 

Chinese Naval Plans for Subs and Carriers

Do your friends tell you that you surf the Internet too much, or do you tell others that they spend too much time surfing the Internet? Well, it is lucky that someone was surfing, and had the foresight to grab some Chinese Documents during the brief period when they were available online. As reported in […]

Do your friends tell you that you surf the Internet too much, or do you tell others that they spend too much time surfing the Internet?

Well, it is lucky that someone was surfing, and had the foresight to grab some Chinese Documents during the brief period when they were available online. As reported in Popular Science on March 16, “For a brief moment, the China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (CSIC), put online China’s next big naval projects (but quickly pulled them down).” Sure, some conspiracy theorists may claim this was nothing more than a clever way to spread disinformation, but to others, it represents a wealth of accidentally released information about “ China’s ambitions for a world class navy.” What do you think? The article explains that CSIC is a PLAN shipbuilder with a history of building Carriers and Submarines. It is believed that they will build the Type 095 Nuclear Attack Submarine. “The Type 095 SSN will include new noise reduction measures, like an integrated electric propulsion system and possibly a shaftless rim drive, single hull, and electronic noise cancellation.”
The Chinese continue to be concerned about area denial. The article describes that “To defend Chinese home waters and expand the anti-access/area denial umbrella underwater, CSIC is designing an underwater attack and defense system. It could likely be an armed variant of the “Underwater Great Wall” of UUVs, other maritime robots, and seafloor sensors.”

You can read the full article here….. https://www.popsci.com/china-nuclear-submarine-aircraft-carrier-leak

Or if you want to learn more about the concepts detailed in this article, consider taking an ATI course such as the following.
Submarines and Submariners

Virginia Class Attack Submarine (SSNs) Program Status and Shortfall Report to Congress

Summary of Congressional Research Service Report https://news.usni.org/2017/06/01/report-congress-virginia-class-attack-submarine-program The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear-powered attack submarines since FY1998. The two Virginia-class boats requested for procurement in FY2017 are to be the 25th and 26 th boats in the class. The 10 Virginia-class boats programmed for procurement in FY2014- FY2018 (two per year for five […]
Summary of Congressional Research Service Report
The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear-powered attack submarines since FY1998. The two Virginia-class boats requested for procurement in FY2017 are to be the 25th and 26 th boats in the class. The 10 Virginia-class boats programmed for procurement in FY2014- FY2018 (two per year for five years) are being procured under a multiyear-procurement (MYP) contract.
From FY2025 to FY2036, the number of SSNs is projected to experience a dip or valley, reaching a minimum of 41 boats (i.e., 25 boats, or about 38%, less than the 66-boat force-level goal) in FY2029. This projected valley is a consequence of having procured a relatively small number of SSNs during the 1990s, in the early years of the post-Cold War era. Some observers are concerned that this projected valley in SSN force levels could lead to a period of heightened operational strain for the SSN force, and perhaps a period of weakened conventional deterrence against potential adversaries.
The Navy has been exploring options for mitigating the projected valley. Procuring additional Virginia-class boats in the near term is one of those options. In that connection, the Navy has expressed interest in procuring an additional Virginia-class boat in FY2021. Congress also has the option of funding the procurement of one or more additional Virginia-class boats in FY2018-FY2020.
For more information attend
Submarines and Submariners 19-Sep-17 21-Sep-18
Jim Jenkins, President

You decide – The Best Technical Training for You!

    You can make a difference. Applied Technology Institute is scheduling new courses for September 2016 through July 2017. Please let us know which courses you would like to see on our schedule or brought to your facility. ·         If you have a group of 3 or more people, ATI can schedule an open enrollment course in […]
    You can make a difference. Applied Technology Institute is scheduling new courses for September 2016 through July 2017. Please let us know which courses you would like to see on our schedule or brought to your facility. ·         If you have a group of 3 or more people, ATI can schedule an open enrollment course in your geographic area. ·         If you have a group of 8 or more, ATI can schedule a course on-site at your facility. On-site training brings our experts to you — on your schedule, at your location. It also allows us to plan your training in advance and tailor classes directly to your needs. You can help identify courses to suit your training needs and bring the best short courses to you! ATI courses can help you stay up-to-date with today’s rapidly changing technology. Boost your career. Courses are led by world-class design experts. Learn from the proven best. ATI courses by technical area: Satellites & Space-Related courses Acoustic & Sonar Engineering courses Engineering & Data Analysis courses Radar, Missiles and Combat Systems courses Project Management and Systems Engineering courses ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Contact us: ATI@ATIcourses.com or (410) 956-8805
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Raytheon Unveils New High-Tech Sonar System to Detect Submarines

  Applied Technology Institute (ATICourses) offers a variety of courses on Acoustic & Sonar Engineering. Raytheon reported that DARPA has received the prototype of a new underwater submarine detection system to be mounted on unmanned trimaran hulls. The Pentagon’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has received the prototype of a new underwater submarine detection system […]
  Applied Technology Institute (ATICourses) offers a variety of courses on Acoustic & Sonar Engineering. Raytheon reported that DARPA has received the prototype of a new underwater submarine detection system to be mounted on unmanned trimaran hulls. The Pentagon’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has received the prototype of a new underwater submarine detection system to be mounted on unmanned trimaran hulls, Raytheon said in a news release. “Raytheon Company has completed delivery of its latest… fifth-generation hull-mounted sonar system, for… DARPA’s Anti-Submarine Warfare Continuous Trail Unmanned Vessel program,” the release, issued on Wednesday, stated. A prototype trimaran built by Leidos is designed to serve as the program’s unmanned vehicle, Raytheon explained. The Raytheon report followed published claims that Russia is apparently developing an underwater drone that will be able to inflict massive damage to coastal areas as part of a top secret project known as Ocean Multipurpose System: Status-6 carrying a torpedo equipped with a nuclear warhead. This weaponized drone will be capable of causing “assured unacceptable damage” to an enemy by contaminating vast coastal areas, rendering them completely unusable for long periods of time, and will be able to bypass NATO’s missile defense system.


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China Threat: More Submarines Than US Navy

Applied Technology Institute (ATICourses) offers a variety of courses on Acoustic & Sonar Engineering as well as Radar, Defense, Missiles and Combat Systems.  The new below would be of interest to our readers. China is building some “fairly amazing submarines” and now has more diesel- and nuclear-powered vessels than the United States.  China is also expanding the […]

Applied Technology Institute (ATICourses) offers a variety of courses on Acoustic & Sonar Engineering as well as Radar, Defense, Missiles and Combat Systems.  The new below would be of interest to our readers. China is building some “fairly amazing submarines” and now has more diesel- and nuclear-powered vessels than the United States.  China is also expanding the geographic areas of operation for its submarines, and their length of deployment.  For instance, China had carried out three deployments in the Indian Ocean, and had kept vessels out at sea for 95 days. U.S. military officials in recent months have grown increasingly vocal about China’s military buildup and launched a major push to ensure that U.S. military technology stays ahead of rapid advances by China and Russia. The quality of China’s submarines is reportedly lower than those built by the United States, but the size of its undersea fleet had now surpassed that of the U.S. fleet. A spokeswoman said the U.S. Navy had 71 commissioned U.S. submarines.  U.S. submarines are built by Huntington Ingalls Industries Inc. and General Dynamics Corp. In its last annual report to Congress about China’s military and security developments, the Pentagon said China had 77 principal surface combatant ships, more than 60 submarines, 55 large and medium amphibious ships, and about 85 missile-equipped small combatants. Read more here.


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U.S. Submarines To Be Upgraded With New Generation COTS Systems

Applied Technology Institute (ATICourses) offers a variety of courses on Acoustic, Noise & Sonar Engineering.  The news below should be of interest to our readers. COTS stands for commercial off-the-shelf stands for commercial items and available in the commercial marketplace that can be bought and used under government contract.  Motivations for using COTS components include hopes […]
SAN DIEGO (Feb. 6, 2015) The Los Angeles-class attack submarine USS Albuquerque (SSN 706) departs San Diego for a deployment. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Kyle Carlstrom/Released)
Applied Technology Institute (ATICourses)
offers a variety of courses on Acoustic, Noise & Sonar Engineering.  The news below should be of interest to our readers. COTS stands for commercial off-the-shelf stands for commercial items and available in the commercial marketplace that can be bought and used under government contract.  Motivations for using COTS components include hopes for reduction of overall system-development and costs (as components can be bought or licensed instead of being developed from scratch) and reduced long-term maintenance costs. Now COTS computer equipment for sonar signal processing designed by General Dynamics Corp. will be introduced to to US Navy submarines. A $47 million dollars were granted to the company to deliver Multipurpose Processor (MPP) engineering services and Total Ship Monitoring Systems (TSMS) for Ohio-class missile submarines as well as on Los Angeles-, Seawolf-, and Virginia-class fast attack submarines.  The goal of the Naval Sea Systems Command is to increase effectiveness of the following:
  • towed array
  • hull array
  • sphere array
  • sonar signal processing
The MPP is a multi-array interface receiver that provides signal conditioning for received array signals; data processing; digital formatting of data; beam formation; and signal processing for A-RCI display data. The TSMS, meanwhile, monitors and localizes the submarine’s own noise sources including transients, so onboard sonar systems can compensate for it and improve its ability to detect and identify sound emissions from other submarines ad surface ships. The TSMS feeds its data to the MPP.


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Family affair in hunt for MH370

A 20-year-old “genius” electronic engineer and his father are among the crew searching for the missing Malaysian flight MH370.   Applied Technology Institute (ATIcourses) offers a variety of courses on Acoustic, Noise & Sonar Engineering.  The news below will be of interest to our readers. When Jay Larsen, the chief engineer on MH370 search vessel GO Phoenix, […]
A 20-year-old “genius” electronic engineer and his father are among the crew searching for the missing Malaysian flight MH370.   Applied Technology Institute (ATIcourses) offers a variety of courses on Acoustic, Noise & Sonar Engineering.  The news below will be of interest to our readers. When Jay Larsen, the chief engineer on MH370 search vessel GO Phoenix, needed a new technician, his 20-year-old son Kolter sprang to mind. “He’s an electrical engineer genius and we asked him to come along,” he said. “He’s been a very solid member. I’m proud of him. “I don’t know that we can understand the weight of what we’re doing honestly. “We’ve all experienced losses close to us and we’re out here trying our hardest.” Jay and Kolter are key members of a search crew on board the GO Phoenix, a vessel scouring the Indian Ocean for the missing Malaysian Airlines Flight 370 (MH370), which disappeared March 8 while ferrying 239 passengers and crewmembers from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to Beijing, China.
And while the Flathead Valley natives long to be home tracking elk sign through the wet November snow, the significance of their contribution to the search expedition isn’t lost on either of them. For seven months, family members of the missing passengers and flight crew have been waiting for answers buried in a watery abyss, and Larsen hopes his highly specialized sonar technology can help bring them to light. Jay Larsen owns the Whitefish-based deep-sea survey company Hydrospheric Solutions LLC (HSI), and, as chief engineer of the sonar kit that the ship is towing miles beneath the ocean surface, he has spent the last month mapping the undulating mountains and crevasses of the ocean floor, working round-the-clock to locate the missing flight in the remote southern Indian Ocean. His son, Kolter, an engineering student at Montana State University – Jay’s alma mater – joined the crew somewhat serendipitously as an electrical technician while taking a semester off college. The sonar that HSI is towing 3.2 miles beneath the ship is called the SLH ProSAS-60, owned by SL Hydrospheric LLC, a company that Larsen still co-manages and co-founded in 2008 with the purpose of bringing the rarefied device to the deep-sea surveying market. Read more here.


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NAVY’s Stealth Ship of the future: Zumwalt

Applied Technology Institute (ATI Courses) offers a variety of courses on Radar, Missiles & Combat Systems and  Acoustic, Noise & Sonar Engineering. The news about new NAVY’s stealth destroyer would be of great interest to our readers. The US Navy’s newest and biggest toy is the imposing Zumwalt-class guided-missile destroyer, a svelte, stealthy entry designed to […]
Applied Technology Institute (ATI Courses) offers a variety of courses on Radar, Missiles & Combat Systems and  Acoustic, Noise & Sonar Engineering. The news about new NAVY’s stealth destroyer would be of great interest to our readers. The US Navy’s newest and biggest toy is the imposing Zumwalt-class guided-missile destroyer, a svelte, stealthy entry designed to complement the Navy’s large fleet of Arleigh Burke-class DDGs. Considering everything from its stealthy figure – which allows it to appear on radar as the same size as a fishing boat – to its 155-millimeter (six-inch) Advanced Gun System represents a significant leap forward in naval technology, it’d be impossible for us to recap all the significant features on this new ship. Thankfully, Defense News has a really thorough and feature-laden story on the lead ship of the class, theUSS Zumwalt. Covering the ship from bow to stern, anything you might want to know (and that’s been released to the public) about this new destroyer can be found there. Head over and have a look!


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A Malaysian naval vessel is heading to the Indian Ocean to join the search for MH370.

A Malaysian navy vessel fitted with specialised sonar equipment has set sail for the Indian Ocean to join in the search for Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 that went missing nearly five months ago. Defence Minister Hishammuddin Hussein said the KD Mutiara vessel left a navy base on Monday in the north-eastern state of Perak. The […]
A Malaysian navy vessel fitted with specialised sonar equipment has set sail for the Indian Ocean to join in the search for Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 that went missing nearly five months ago. Defence Minister Hishammuddin Hussein said the KD Mutiara vessel left a navy base on Monday in the north-eastern state of Perak. The vessel has sonar equipment that can detect objects down to 7,000 meters from the sea surface, he said. A Chinese ship and an Australian-contracted private vessel are conducting a survey of the Indian Ocean floor where the aircraft was believed to have crashed off the coast of Western Australia. It vanished without a trace on March 8 about an hour after takeoff from Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia has vowed to continue the search for the missing flight until the aircraft is found. The plane was carrying 239 people aboard the flight to Beijing when it radically changed course and the tracking instruments were shut off. Aviation specialists have surmised that it flew south over the ocean, and would have run out of fuel.


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U.S. deep-sea sub “Nereus” lost in Kermadec Trench

A deep-sea research sub has been lost in Kermadec Trench, one of the ocean’s deepest spots, which lies northeast of New Zealand, media reports said Tuesday. The unmanned robotic vessel, called Nereus, went missing on Saturday while exploring the Kermadec Trench. It was a flagship ocean explorer for the U.S. science community. Surface debris was […]
A deep-sea research sub has been lost in Kermadec Trench, one of the ocean’s deepest spots, which lies northeast of New Zealand, media reports said Tuesday. The unmanned robotic vessel, called Nereus, went missing on Saturday while exploring the Kermadec Trench. It was a flagship ocean explorer for the U.S. science community. Surface debris was found, suggesting the 8 million dollar sub suffered a catastrophic implosion as a result of the immense pressures when it was operating some 10km down. The deep trench has pressures of about 16,000 pounds per square inch(psi). “Nereus helped us explore places we have never seen before and ask questions we never thought to ask,” said biologist Timothy Shank from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, which managed the sub. The robot was built in 2008 and could operate in an autonomous mode or remotely controlled via a tether to a support ship to explore the Earth’s deepest oceanic trenches. The team is now collecting surface debris in hopes of revealing more about the implosion. Read more here
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CNN consults ATIcourses: Our instructor Vincent Capone gives interview!

ATI’s instructors are world-class experts. They are the best in the business, averaging 25 to 35 years of experience, and are carefully selected for their ability to explain advanced technology in a readily understandable manner. ATIcourses was contacted by CNN to gain insight on the technology being employed in search for Malaysia Flight 370 that […]
ATI’s instructors are world-class experts. They are the best in the business, averaging 25 to 35 years of experience, and are carefully selected for their ability to explain advanced technology in a readily understandable manner. ATIcourses was contacted by CNN to gain insight on the technology being employed in search for Malaysia Flight 370 that went down in Indian Ocean.  We are very proud that our instructor for Design, Operation and Data Analysis of Side Scan Sonar Systems course, was recently interviewed by CNN.  You can watch the video by following this link. We are planning to present this course in fall of 2014.  If you are interested in attending, please sent us an email to ATI@ATIcourses.com
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Will passenger remains from missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 ever be found?

As the search for the missing Malaysia jet continues, the likelihood that remains of the plane’s 239 passengers will be found dwindles, according to aviation experts. David Learmont, operations and safety editor at Flight International magazine, told NBC News while it’s not out of the realm of possibility, each passing day makes it more unlikely that […]
Navy personnel on board a P-8I aircraft during a search operation for the missing Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 aircraft in the southern Indian Ocean.
As the search for the missing Malaysia jet continues, the likelihood that remains of the plane’s 239 passengers will be found dwindles, according to aviation experts. David Learmont, operations and safety editor at Flight International magazine, told NBC News while it’s not out of the realm of possibility, each passing day makes it more unlikely that remains or even personal effects from those on Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 will be found. The plane disappeared March 8 and, despite several promising leads, no wreckage or debris has been found. Among the problems, Learmont said, is the vast search area and the unknowns related to where the plane went down, things that are different than the 2009 crash of Air France 447. In that crash, searchers were able to find remains two years after the plane went down in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Brazil. “MH370 is a different ball game,” Learmont said. “We know nothing.” A robotic submarine searching for the wreckage completed its first full 16-hour mission Wednesday after two previous aborted missions. The Bluefin-21 autonomous underwater vehicle has searched about 35 square miles in its three trips. So far, the data shows no sign of the plane, officials said, adding it could take up to two months for the submarine to scour the 250-plus mile search area. DNA could be used to identify remains   The ocean floor where the jetliner is believed to have gone down is silty, Learmont said, making recovery even more difficult but keeping some animals away from the area. “Anything heavy — engine parts, wing spars — may sink in, in which case … we may not be able to ‘see’ anything,” Learmont said. If even fragments of remains are ever found, experts will be able to use DNA and forensics to determine whom they belong to. First, however, an unmanned vehicle would have to haul the wreckage and any remains to the surface.


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Malaysia Airlines Flight 370: The result of Bluefin-21’s first foray? Nothing of interest.

Time to try this again. The first deployment of an underwater vehicle to hunt for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 was aborted early, sending the drone back to the surface 10 hours before expected. Search officials analyzed data from the Bluefin-21’s six hours underwater, and found no objects of interest, the U.S. Navy said Tuesday. Read […]

Time to try this again. The first deployment of an underwater vehicle to hunt for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 was aborted early, sending the drone back to the surface 10 hours before expected. Search officials analyzed data from the Bluefin-21’s six hours underwater, and found no objects of interest, the U.S. Navy said Tuesday. Read more here.


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Malaysia Airlines MH370: Should $3bn. be invested to map the ocean floor?

It has been over a month since Malaysia Airlines MH370 went down and the search still continues.  The biggest problem that the searchers face is poor maps on the ocean floor (see below). The majority of the information comes from satellites that infer the shape of the ocean bottom from the shape of the water surface […]
It has been over a month since Malaysia Airlines MH370 went down and the search still continues.  The biggest problem that the searchers face is poor maps on the ocean floor (see below). The majority of the information comes from satellites that infer the shape of the ocean bottom from the shape of the water surface above.  However, satellite are not flying a mission specifically dedicated to the task of mapping the ocean floor.  A mission like that is estimated to cost $100m and none of the governments are willing to commit to this endeavor.  We know more about the surface of Saturn of Jupiter than our own waters.  The best way to map the ocean floor is through  a modern swath-mapping echosounder system.  It would take 20 dedicated ships 10 years to complete this task. This could be achieved for about $3bn.  It sounds like a lot but a lot of disasters could be avoided.  Think of the  nuclear submarine USS San Francisco that crashed into  a seamount in 2005.
The USS San Francisco hit a seamount inadequately recorded on navy charts
In addition, more accurate mapping is also important for fisheries management and conservation, because it’s around the underwater mountains that wildlife tends to congregate. Each seamount is a biodiversity hotspot. What are  your thoughts on this?  Should we explore our own planet first or put all the resources into exploration of other planets?  Please comment below… Read more here.


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Malaysia Air Flight 370: Two More Pings Received Yesterday

ATIcourses offers a variety of courses on technology currently employed in search for Malaysia Air Flight 370. The search teams looking for the wreckage of Malaysia Air Flight 370 believe they have heard a total of four pings from the “black boxes” in the last few days — two of which were received yesterday. The signals […]
ATIcourses offers a variety of courses on technology currently employed in search for Malaysia Air Flight 370. The search teams looking for the wreckage of Malaysia Air Flight 370 believe they have heard a total of four pings from the “black boxes” in the last few days — two of which were received yesterday. The signals came from the narrowing search area off of Australia’s northwest coast, on frequencies consistent with those of commercial-aircraft flight recorders. After more than a month, though, time is running out on locating them through their beacon transmissions. Read more here.


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Malaysia Airlines flight MH370’s black-box pingers. Technical acoustic information that may be useful to reporters and researchers

The mystery of the missing Malaysia Airline flight MH370 is closer to being solved as authorities have revealed that they have tracked the final unexplained signal emitted by the jet, to the same point in the Indian Ocean, where the jet was believed to have crashed. Time will tell whether this is a definitive lead […]
The mystery of the missing Malaysia Airline flight MH370 is closer to being solved as authorities have revealed that they have tracked the final unexplained signal emitted by the jet, to the same point in the Indian Ocean, where the jet was believed to have crashed. Time will tell whether this is a definitive lead or a false alarm. We all hope it is the beginning to a successful answer. Calling the latest development a promising lead, retired Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston, who is leading the search, said that an Australian navy ship had detected two sets of pulse signals that sounded just like an emergency locator beacon. While the first set was heard on Saturday and lasted for two hours and 20 minutes, the Ocean Shield ship then lost contact with the “pings” but turned around and later heard further signals for 13 minutes, the Sydney Morning Herald reported. However, the ship lost contact again and has been trying to relocate the signals. Houston said that in the search so far it is probably the best information that the team has had, adding that the search team is encouraged that it is very close to where it needs to be. He added that he would want more confirmation before he could say ‘this is it’. Here is a list of the equipment that is being employed by the searchers. If you find this information useful, please mention ATICourses.if you use the materials that we have gathered. ATIcourses has a strong set of courses in underwater acoustics and oceanography that provide additional information. Some of our instructors are willing to provide more in-depth information to reporters who are actively covering the Malaysian flight MH370 investigation to provide accurate, in-depth information. Contact us at ati@ATIcourses.com More info
1. Beacon Black Box Locator Acoustic 37.5 KHz Pingers An underwater locator beacon (ULB) or underwater acoustic beacon, also known informally as a pinger, is a device fitted to aviation flight recorders such as the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) and flight data recorder (FDR). ULBs are also sometimes required to be attached directly to an aircraft fuselage. ULBs are triggered by water immersion; most emit an ultrasonic 10ms pulse once per second at 37.5 kHz ± 1kHz. Maximum detection range A 37.5 kHz (160.5 dB re 1 μPa) pinger can be detectable 1–2 kilometres (0.62–1.24 mi) from the surface in normal conditions and 4–5 kilometres (2.5–3.1 mi) in good conditions. A 37.5 kHz (180 dB re 1 μPa) transponder pinger can be detected 4–5 kilometres (2.5–3.1 mi) in normal conditions and 6–7 kilometres (3.7–4.3 mi) in good conditions. SPECIFICATION: • Operating Frequency: 37.5 kHz  ± 1 kHz (Doppler can shift the measured frequency) • Operating Depth: Surface to 20,000 feet (6100 m or 3.33 nmi) • Pulse Length: Not less than 9 milliseconds (10 millisecond nominal) • Pulse Repetition Rate: Not less than 0.9 pulse per second (1 pulse per second nominal) • Acoustic Output, Initial: 1060 dynes/cm2rms pressure at 1 meter (160.5 dB re 1 UPa/ meter) • Acoustic Output, After 30 days: 700 dynes/cm2rms pressure at 1 meter (157.0 dB re 1 UPa/meter or about 70 % of the nominal range as it degrades) • Radiation Pattern: Rated output over 80 percent of sphere, near omni-directional • Size: 1.3″ diameter x 4″ long (DK100/DK120) • 1.3″ diameter x 2.97″ long (DK130/DK140) • Weight: Less than 7 oz (including battery) (DK100/DK120) • Less than 4.9 oz (including battery)(DK130/DK140) • Power Source: Lithium Battery • Expected range: about 2 nmi slant range radius from source for 37.5 KHz Expected Transmission Loss at 37.5 Khz assuming absorption of 4.2 dB per KIM plus spreading loss of 20 log R or 60 dB + 10 log r for R> 1000 meters 37.5 KHz ———————— 0.31 mi .62 mi 1.25 mi 3.25 mi 6.2 mi 10 mi 100 mi mi Range in KM ———————— 0.5 1 2 5 10 16 160 KM TL =20 log Rkm*1000+ alpha*Rkm 56.1 64.2 74.4 95.0 122.0 151.3 776.1 TL (dB) TL =20 log Rkm*1000+ alpha*Rkm for RKM <1 Km 56.1 64.2 71.4 88.0 112.0 139.2 754.0 TL (dB) TL =60 +10*log Rkm+ alpha*Rkm for RKM.>1 2. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle – Bluefin-21 Search Vehicle   The Bluefin-21 is a highly modular autonomous underwater vehicle able to carry multiple sensors and payloads at once. It boasts a high energy capacity that enables extended operations even at the greatest depths. The Bluefin-21 has immense capability but is also flexible enough to operate from various ships of opportunity worldwide.
Depth Rating 14,763 ft (4,500 m)
Endurance 25 hours @ 3 knots with standard payload
EdgeTech 2200-M 120/410 kHz side scan sonar for search Reson 7125 400 kHz multibeam echosounder for site mapping   http://www.bluefinrobotics.com/products/bluefin-21/   3 Side Scan Sonar Option – EdgeTech 2200   The Full Spectrum chirp side scan sonar is a calibrated wide band digital FM sonar that provides quantitative and qualitative, high resolution, low-noise side scan imagery. It simultaneously transmits linearly swept FM pulses and the user may select the combination of these frequencies dual simultaneous as follows:   120/410 kHz, (most likely for Malaysia Airline Flight 370 Search) 75/410 kHz, 75/120 kHz or 300/600 kHz.   A Digital Signal Processor (DSP) in the Full Spectrum (FSDW) electronics on the AUV or ROV holds the two chirp waveforms to be transmitted.   ATI thinks the side scan frequency is likely to be 120/410 KHz which will give ranges of 250 m to 500m at 120 KHz and 130M to 200m at 400 Khz.   That will imply short detection ranges even for the 120 KHz sonar, say 250 – 500 m per side. The 410 KHz is then used at shorter range (130 – 200 m) to get a higher resolution image. The search pattern must overlap to leave no coverage holes, so the offsets in range between passes may be at most 90 percent of the assured range.   Expected Operational Ranges for the EdgeTech 2200- side scan sonar, depending on Water temperature and salinity. The absorption factor is estimated based on a model from Francois and Garrison, JASA 1982, and a depth of 50m. Absorption decrease slightly as the side scan is towed deeper. The range is to each side and the search rate is likely to be limited to 2.5 or 3.0 knots to keep the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) near the bottom on a long cable scope. Quoted from http://www.edgetech.com/docs/app_note_range.pdf  
  • Freq : 120Khz, Range: 250 to 500m
  • Freq: 410kHz, Range: 130 to > 200m
 
  • Freq : 75kHz, Range: 700 to 800m. 1000m is possible at extreme depths and with special pulses
  • Freq : 270kHz, Range : 150 to 300m
  • Freq : 540kHz, Range: 100 to 150m
  • Freq : 850kHz, Range: 50 to 75m
  http://www.edgetech.com/docs/2200-m_brochure_073107.pdf   4. SeaBat 7125 – Reson 7125 400 kHz multibeam echosounder   The fundamental acoustics with 400 kHz for high resolution, high density surveying which exceeds the most stringent of specifications, and 200kHz for greater range performance. The SeaBat 7125 can be installed on any platform from survey vessels to ROVs and AUVs down to 6000m water depth.   The 400 kHz multibeam echosounder is a multibeam mapping sonar. ATI would expect that it will need to be towed about 150 – 400 m off the bottom to get good signal to noise. It is likely used to map the wreckage after it has been found using the side scan sonar.   Then ATI expects some short range video to confirm and map the wreckage.   http://www.teledyne-reson.com/products/seabat-feature-packs/fp3-frdh/  
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Summary of the Navy’s submarine building program.

We thought you might find this Power Point presentation interesting and useful. This is from Rear Admiral David Johnson ( Program Executive Officer Submarines) presentation to the Navy Submarine League on 24 October 2013. It contains a good summary of the Navy’s submarine building program. The topics include: 1. VIRGINIA Class SSN a. Delivery of […]
NSSN Virginia Class Attack Submarine
We thought you might find this Power Point presentation interesting and useful. This is from Rear Admiral David Johnson ( Program Executive Officer Submarines) presentation to the Navy Submarine League on 24 October 2013. It contains a good summary of the Navy’s submarine building program. The topics include:
  1. 1. VIRGINIA Class SSN
    1. a. Delivery of 10 Virginia Class submarines
    2. b. Virginia Payload Modules
    3. 2. OHIO Replacement SSBN
      1. a. Ohio Replacement Schedule
      2. b. Ohio Replacement Features and Specifications
      3. c. SSN and SSBN Construction Plans
      4. d. Ohio Replacement Recent Accomplishments
      5. 3. Payloads
      6. 4. MK48 Heavyweight Torpedo Restart
      7. 5. Advanced Weapons Enhanced by Submarine UAS Against Mobile Targets (AWESUM)
      8. 6. Universal Launched and Recovery Module
      9. 7. CVN-77 Prototype Surface Ship Torpedo Defense
      10. 8. Impacts of Sequestration and the Continuing Resolution
  The link to the full presentation is http://www.scribd.com/doc/178787780/PEO-SUB-NSL-Symposium-FINAL-24-Oct-13-pptx Also, here is a link to Captain Ray Wellborn’s presentation on Virginia Class Submarines https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2011/07/11/interested-in-submarines-learn-more-about-uss-virginia/
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Navy commissions new submarine: USS Minnesota

The Navy commissioned its 10th Virginia-class submarine on Saturday in a ceremony at Naval Station Norfolk. During the formal ceremony, Pre-Commissioning Unit Minnesota officially became the USS Minnesota. The Minnesota was built in Newport News, with construction beginning in February 2008 and finishing 11 months ahead of schedule in June. Minnesota is 377 feet in […]
The Navy commissioned its 10th Virginia-class submarine on Saturday in a ceremony at Naval Station Norfolk. During the formal ceremony, Pre-Commissioning Unit Minnesota officially became the USS Minnesota. The Minnesota was built in Newport News, with construction beginning in February 2008 and finishing 11 months ahead of schedule in June. Minnesota is 377 feet in length and has a beam of 34 feet. It displaces 7,800 tons and can operate at more than 25 knots submerged. Its reactor plant is designed to last the entire planned 33-year life of the ship, which helps reduce lifecycle cost while increasing the time the ship is available to perform missions. Take a look inside!  


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Detecting Quiet Diesel Electric Submarines

This is an article worth reading. You can also learn more by attending ATI’s sonar and acoustics courses. https://aticourses.com/schedule.htm#acoustic http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htsub/articles/20130626.aspx This is a quote from the summary. There are 39 nations operating a total of 400 diesel electric subs. Only three of these nations (China, Iran, North Korea) are likely to use their subs against […]
This is an article worth reading. You can also learn more by attending ATI’s sonar and acoustics courses. https://aticourses.com/schedule.htm#acoustic http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htsub/articles/20130626.aspx This is a quote from the summary. There are 39 nations operating a total of 400 diesel electric subs. Only three of these nations (China, Iran, North Korea) are likely to use their subs against the U.S. or its allies. China has fifty of these boats, Iran has three (plus 25 much smaller mini-subs) and North Korea has 20 (plus 50 much smaller mini-subs). So the U.S. has to worry about 73 diesel electric subs and 75 mini-subs. But about half the full size subs are elderly, obsolete, and noisy. The same can be said for at least half the mini-subs. That leaves about 36 full size subs and 40 mini-subs that are a clear threat (though the older stuff can be a threat if you get sloppy). That’s a lot of subs, and they make the East Asian coast and the Persian Gulf dangerous places for American warships. Moreover, the North Korean and Iranian fleets (and governments) are in decline, while China is pouring more cash into their armed forces. If there’s any diesel-electric boats the U.S. Navy has to be extremely concerned about, it’s the Chinese. While China continues to try and develop world class nuclear subs, they are also moving ahead in creating world class diesel electric boats.      

No More Blue Angels Zooming Through Annapolis Skies

Yes, it appears that sequester is unavoidable.  According to the Department of the Navy press release we won’t be marveling at the flight of Blue Angels above our heads.  If you are one of those who seen them fly, consider yourself lucky.  It won’t be happening for a while. Among other things, he release says the […]
Sequester results: No More Appearances by Blue Anges
Yes, it appears that sequester is unavoidable.  According to the Department of the Navy press release we won’t be marveling at the flight of Blue Angels above our heads.  If you are one of those who seen them fly, consider yourself lucky.  It won’t be happening for a while. Among other things, he release says the Navy plans to shut down Carrier Air Wing Two in April. The air wing is based California, but one of the squadrons VFA-34  is based at Oceana. The Navy also intends to cancel four appearances by the Blue Angels. The Navy will cancel or defer the deployment of up to six ships throughout the month April. The Navy will also defer USNS Comfort’s humanitarian deployment to Central and South America. The USNS Comfort just came into Naval Station Norfolk on Friday. The Navy press release states these actions are being taken to “preserve support for those forces stationed overseas and currently forward-deployed. “We made these choices careful while trying to preserve the ability to reverse or quickly restore negative effects if and when funding is restored.” Find out more http://navylive.dodlive.mil/2013/03/02/department-of-the-navy-response-to-sequestration/
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Training budgets: Smaller is not an option

  The debate on the budgets for the government organizations is pretty toxic in the US. Both US Navy and US Army alongside other organizations have declared budget shortfalls which effect many areas including training. Without commitment to training and learning new skills there can be no continuous improvement, which is one of the prime […]
  The debate on the budgets for the government organizations is pretty toxic in the US. Both US Navy and US Army alongside other organizations have declared budget shortfalls which effect many areas including training. Without commitment to training and learning new skills there can be no continuous improvement, which is one of the prime directives of any government or company. The Applied Technology Institute (ATI) specializes in short course technical training in space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, systems engineering and signal processing. Since 1984 ATI has provided leading-edge public courses and on-site technical training to defense and NASA facilities, as well as DOD and aerospace contractors. The courses provide a clear understanding of the fundamental principles and a working knowledge of current technology and applications.   When your company does not want to pay for the training you really want, as an alternative, you can:
  • Spent your own personal money and funds; if you believe in it and then you will do it
  • Find a user group who are practicing the skills you desire
  • Don’t accept the classic answer from the boss, “How does X help the business?”. If the training is relevant to you achieving a goal of being a much better employee then of course it is relevant.
  • Find another organization to work for
A training manager with a good team can:
  • Fight for your team and their training; fight for your team’s budget and don’t let the senior management take it away
  • Give up your personal training for the entire year and suggest that they allocate the extra budget to training for your team members
  • Perhaps, it is time to evaluate the relationship with the preferred supplier of training. Has your firm been getting decent value from the PSL (preferred supplier list)?
  • Find alternatives to training like brown bag lunches and/or collaborate with other businesses
Everybody needs training and self-improvement. Please share your opinion with us by commenting below.
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The View Of The Russian Periscope: K-184 vs. Guardfish

“The Saga of the 1972 Guardfish Patrol” by Capt David Minton was read by his Russian counterpart Rear Admiral Alfred S. Berzin, who was the SSGN K-184 commanding officer in the Pacific. For his account of the events please follow this link to the Russian Navy blog.
“The Saga of the 1972 Guardfish Patrol” by Capt David Minton was read by his Russian counterpart Rear Admiral Alfred S. Berzin, who was the SSGN K-184 commanding officer in the Pacific. For his account of the events please follow this link to the Russian Navy blog.


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