Optical Communications Systems

Optical Communications Systems may sound very complicated, and they certainly can be very complicated, but they don’t have to be.  Think back to when you were a kid and you developed a system with your buddy who lived across the street.  You would blink your flashlight in the window two times to indicate that you […]

Optical Communications Systems may sound very complicated, and they certainly can be very complicated, but they don’t have to be. 

Think back to when you were a kid and you developed a system with your buddy who lived across the street.  You would blink your flashlight in the window two times to indicate that you were still awake, and your buddy might blink his flashlight two times to indicate that he was too.  This was an Optical Communication System in its most basic form.

As a Boy Scout, you may have learned to communicate with other scouts using two semaphore flags.  You could certainly relay more information than you did using flashlights in the window, but it was still a very basic Optical Communication System with many limitations.

Optical Communications simply refers to relaying information a distance using light to carry the information.  It can be performed visually, as in the two previous examples, or by using electronic devices.  Clearly, using electronic devices is more complex, and a more powerful way to communicate.

Typically, an optical communication system will include three components.  The Transmitter encodes the message into an optical signal.  The Channel carries the signal to its destination.  And, finally, the receiver which reproduces the original message.

The are two types of channels that can be used in a modern complex optical communication system.  Fiber optic cables can relay messages from the transmitter to the receiver, or, the message can be relayed on a laser beam.  Clearly, using a laser beam to channel the message is more conducive to long distance transmission, or transmission that needs to occur in free space. 

Optical Comms Systems have advantages over RF and Microwave Comms Systems due to their directionality, and high frequency carrier. These properties can lead to greater covertness, freedom from jamming, and potentially much higher data rates.

If you want to learn more, ATI offers Optical Communications Systems.  The course provides a strong foundation for selecting, designing and building either a Free Space Optical Comms, or Fiber-Optic Comms System for various applications. Course includes both DoD and Commercial systems, in Space, Atmospheric, Underground, and Underwater Applications.  You can learn more about this course, and register for it here.

And, as always, you can learn about the full set of courses offered by ATI at www.aticourses.com

Rockets and Launch Vehicles

As I looked at the title of the upcoming ATI course called Rockets and Launch Vehicles, the first question I asked myself was “What is the difference between a rocket and a launch vehicle?  With the help of google, I learned that all launch vehicles are rockets, but not all rockets are launch vehicles.  A […]

As I looked at the title of the upcoming ATI course called Rockets and Launch Vehicles, the first question I asked myself was “What is the difference between a rocket and a launch vehicle?  With the help of google, I learned that all launch vehicles are rockets, but not all rockets are launch vehicles.  A rocket that is powerful enough to send people, satellites, or spacecrafts into space is called a Launch Vehicle.  So, those things you would build and shoot into the sky as a kid are rockets, but they are not launch vehicles.

Rockets, including launch vehicles, take off by burning fuel, which produces a gas byproduct.  That escaping gas produces the force that creates the thrust to power the rocket upward.

Most launch vehicles need multiple stages to produce enough thrust get a spacecraft into space.  These stages usually sit on top of each other, but there also some designs which have the stages parallel to each other; it all depends on the goals of the mission.  The first stage, the stage closest to the ground, is usually the largest.  Its purpose is to lift the spacecraft above the earth’s atmosphere to a height of about 150,000 feet.  The purpose of the second stage, the stage closest to the spacecraft, is to get the spacecraft to achieve orbital velocity.  Usually, when a stage has used up all of its fuel, it serves no additional purpose, so it is jettisoned.

The Space Launch System is a launch vehicle getting a lot of attention and a lot of funding today,  The SLS is the Launch Vehicle which will be used for the NASA Artemis missions which will first return to the moon, and then explore beyond.  The mission of the first Artemis flight, Artemis I, will be to test the SLS launch vehicle using an uncrewed Orion Spacecraft.  This launch will be occurring in March 2022.

If you would like to learn more about rockets and launch vehicles, consider taking the upcoming ATI course Rockets and Launch Vehicles.  You can read more about this course, and register for it here.

And, as always, you learn about other upcoming ATI courses at the ATI homepage www.aticourses.com

Designing Satellite Systems with a Link Budget

Just imagine the communication that occurs between a satellite orbiting the earth and the receiving station on earth.  Clearly, in order for that communication to be successful, the signal needs to be received at the earth station with enough SNR (signal to noise ratio) for the signal to be intelligently received and acted upon at […]

Just imagine the communication that occurs between a satellite orbiting the earth and the receiving station on earth. 

Clearly, in order for that communication to be successful, the signal needs to be received at the earth station with enough SNR (signal to noise ratio) for the signal to be intelligently received and acted upon at the earth station.  

In order for the Satellite designers and the Earth Station designers to do their jobs, they must work together to ensure that transmitting satellite transmits with enough power for the receiving station/dish to understand the signal.  This would be simple if we could assume that the receiving dish receives all of the power that the satellite transmits, but that would not be a good assumption.  There are various things encountered by the signal during its trip between the satellite and the receiving station which each reduce the power of the signal by a small amount.    The transmitter must know how much its transmission will be reduced by all of those things, and account for those losses by boosting transmitting power by that amount so that a reduced received power will still be sufficient for the receiving station to get sufficient SNR in the signal.

A Satellite Link Budget is an accounting of all of the gains and looses that signal will experience in space between a transmitter and a receiver.

So, what are the things that may increase or decrease the power of a signal during its journey between a transmitter and a receiver?

Rain is one example of something that reduces the power contained in the signal.  A designer must assume that it will always be raining during the transmission, or they will end up with a system which is only effective on non-rainy days.  This would not be a good design.

The easiest way to account for gains and losses is with a proven computer tool like SatMaster from Arrowe.  Rain models from the ITU (International Telecommunications Union) provide a viable methodology for assessing rain attenuation in microwave and millimeter wave bands.

And, what are some of the other things that will reduce transmitted power?  These are all great questions, beyond the scope of this blog.

If you design transmitters, or if you design receivers, or if you simply want to learn more about Satellite Link Budgets, consider taking the upcoming ATI course Satellite Link Budget Training on the Personal Computer – GEO and non-GEO, L through Q/V bands. You can learn more about this course and register to attend the course here.

Composites In Aerospace

Todd Johnson did a good job of explaining the use of composites in his article “Composites in Aerospace.” (ThoughtCo, Feb. 16, 2021, thoughtco.com/composites-in-aerospace-820418.)  Rather than reinvent the wheel, lets just review some of what he reported in his article. When it comes to designing aircraft, maximizing the “lift to weight ratio” is very important.  So, […]

Todd Johnson did a good job of explaining the use of composites in his article “Composites in Aerospace.” (ThoughtCo, Feb. 16, 2021, thoughtco.com/composites-in-aerospace-820418.)  Rather than reinvent the wheel, lets just review some of what he reported in his article.

When it comes to designing aircraft, maximizing the “lift to weight ratio” is very important.  So, engineers continuously strive to increase lift, or decrease weight, or both.  This article discusses how one might decrease the weight of an aircraft.

The earliest aircraft contained a metal structure and many metal parts.  This should not be surprising because metal was the strongest material known to engineers at that time.  Composites, however, are a material which can often be used instead of metal.  One of the many advantages of composites is that they are much lighter than metal. Since the late 1980s, the use of composites in aerospace has doubled every five years, so it is definitely a thriving technology.   As if weight reduction would not be reason enough, there are even more advantages to using composites in aerospace engineering.

In addition to dramatically reducing the weight of the aircraft, use of composite materials in aerospace engineering has the following additional advantages:

  • Easier to assemble complex components
  • Higher strength at a reduced weight
  • Mechanical properties can be tailored to specific requirements
  • More thermally stable so expansion and contraction not an issue
  • High Impact resistance and damage tolerance
  • Elimination of electrical corrosion problems

Whether it’s commercial airline industries trying to reduce operating costs, or the military trying to increase payload, range, and survivability of their weapons, composites are the key to accomplishing the goal.

If you want to learn more about the subject, consider enrolling in the ATI course Composite Materials for Aerospace. This three-day course is designed for mechanical or materials engineers and managers that are going to use composite materials, i.e., graphite/epoxy, etc., in aerospace and military applications. To learn more about this course, and to register to attend, you can go here.

As always, a full listing of ATI courses and a schedule of upcoming courses can be found at https://aticourses.com

Field Testing Can Be A Blast

As discussed in a recent ATI Blog, Model Based Systems Engineering is a great way to accomplish goals cheaper, faster, and better.  MBSE alleviates the need to verify your design and construction with frequent and expensive field testing.  Unfortunately, however, there is still a need to occasionally conduct field testing.  Field testing may be required […]

As discussed in a recent ATI Blog, Model Based Systems Engineering is a great way to accomplish goals cheaper, faster, and better.  MBSE alleviates the need to verify your design and construction with frequent and expensive field testing.  Unfortunately, however, there is still a need to occasionally conduct field testing.  Field testing may be required to verify the validity of models which feed your MBSE. Additionally, it is sometimes critically important to conduct field tests, even though Models suggest that the system will work as designed.  One example of this would be when human lives are at stake, and the designer is unwilling to put full trust in the MBSE.

The design of the US’s newest Aircraft Carrier, The Gerald Ford Class Carrier, is an excellent example of how Field Testing may be used in conjunction with MBSE.

The US Navy explains that “The Navy designed the Ford-class carrier using advanced computer modeling methods, testing, and analysis to ensure the ships are hardened to withstand harsh battle conditions.” Although MBSE assured engineers that the ship would be safe in battle conditions, field testing was ordered in order to verify the MBSE.  Such verification is not performed for every design.  In fact, the last time field testing was used by the Navy to verify MBSE was in 2016 for Littoral Combat Ships.

Pyrotechnic Shock Testing on August 8, 2021 in water off the coast of Florida validated the ship’s ability to sustain operations in a simulated combat environment.  Forty Thousand pound (40,000 lb) underwater explosions were released at distances progressively closer to the Carrier, which was heavily instrumented to record the amount of shock that was experienced onboard.

The Navy explains that “These shock trials have tested the resiliency of Ford and her crew and provided extensive data used in the process of validating the shock hardness of the ship.”

Engineers should always use MBSE, but must also be familiar with Pyrotechnic Shock Testing which is sometimes required in addition to MBSE.

To read the US Navy’s reporting of this Pyrotechnic Shock Testing, and to see pictures and videos of the testing, you can go here.

To read about and register for ATI’s upcoming Pyrotechnic Shock Testing course, you can go here.

And, as always, to see a full listing of all ATI courses, you can go here

Game Changer

For decades, the state of the art in missile technology has been Ballistic Missiles.   A Ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver its warhead, or warheads, onto a predetermined target.  The missile is put into orbit by a rocket, and the remainder of its flight is unpowered.  The missile simply falls like a rock […]

For decades, the state of the art in missile technology has been Ballistic Missiles.   A Ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver its warhead, or warheads, onto a predetermined target.  The missile is put into orbit by a rocket, and the remainder of its flight is unpowered.  The missile simply falls like a rock on a highly predictable approach.  Due to the nature of its flight, Ballistic Missiles can easily be countered by Anti-Ballistic Missiles.  The ABM can intercept and destroy the Ballistic Missile at any point during its flight.  Many countries have mastered the technology of Ballistic Missiles, and Anti-Ballistic Missile Defense.  It is what drove the Cold War.

In recent years, however, we have been introduced to a new missile technology.  Hypersonic Missiles have changed the art of war as we know it.  Hypersonic missiles travel at least five times the speed of sound, and they can fly much lower to the ground than conventional Ballistic Missiles.  These hypersonic missiles are more of a threat because they are highly maneuverable.  Due to their speed and their maneuverability, they are difficult, if not impossible, to detect by traditional anti-ballistic missile defense systems.  And, due to their immense kinetic energy, they are even more destructive to the target that they are directed toward.  Hypersonic missiles are a game changer. 

Russia, China, North Korea, and the US have all tested hypersonic missiles.  When they become operational and get incorporated into military arsenals, it will be truly significant for both aggressors and target countries. 

This is truly the way of the future in Rocket and Missile technology.  Scientists and engineers need to be familiar with this new type of missile.

If you would like to learn more about Rocket and Missile Fundamentals including the Hypersonic Missile technology, consider enrolling in ATI’s upcoming course Rocket and Missile Fundamentals.  The instructor has recently added a unit discussing Hypersonic Missiles.

As always, a complete listing of ATI’s courses can be found here.

Radar Keeping Your Car Safe

How many of us actually think about automation and safety when we drive our cars? Rest assured, the Department of Transportation has a well thought-out plan which has been documented in a series of reports.  In 2017, DOT issued Automated Driving Systems, A Vision for Safety 2.0.  In 2018, the DOT expanded the scope of […]

How many of us actually think about automation and safety when we drive our cars? Rest assured, the Department of Transportation has a well thought-out plan which has been documented in a series of reports.  In 2017, DOT issued Automated Driving Systems, A Vision for Safety 2.0.  In 2018, the DOT expanded the scope of their guidance to all surface on-road transportation systems when they issued Preparing for the Future of Transportation: Automated Vehicles 3.0.  Most recently, in 2020, DOT again expanded the scope of their guidance when they issued Ensuring American Leadership in Automated Vehicle Technologies: Automated Vehicles 4.0.  

The concepts described in this series of reports date back to second half of the twentieth century (1950 -2000) when engineers concentrated on the most rudimentary safety and convenience features such as seat belts, cruise control, and anti-lock brakes.  During the next 10 years ( 2000 – 2010 ), engineers worked on advanced safety features like blind spot detection, and warnings for lane departure and forward collisions.  These advances simply alerted the driver to a potential safety issue, but still did nothing to remedy the situation.  From 2010 to 2016, engineers came up with driver assistance features like automatic emergency braking and lane centering assist.  These features were the start of the path toward fully automated vehicles.  From 2016 to 2025, we will become acquainted with partially automated safety features like adaptive cruise control and self-park.  All of this should lead us to a fully automated vehicle capable of driving on highways using autopilot in the years following 2025.  It has been a relatively short span of time, and there have been many advances in automated vehicle technology.

As automobile drivers, we are not really sure how these automated systems work.  We simply know that they work, and we are glad that they are there to help us out.  Behind the scenes, however, engineers and scientist are thinking about the requirements and designs and continuously developing ways to advance the state of the art. 

While radars were once only associated with complex military systems, they are becoming more common today in cars that require them for many of the automated features that have been developed over the years.  Simple radar technology is behind many of the collision avoidance features in today’s cars, and it was instrumental in turning simple cruise control into adaptive cruise control.   In order for automated features in cars to advance, however, so to must the state of the art in radar.  One such advance in radar technology is its ability to not only detect a target, but to track it too.  And then, another advance is its ability to track multiple targets at the same time.  Advances in this technology will truly advance our ability to move closer to the goal a fully automated vehicle.

To learn more about advances in multi target tracking, consider enrolling in the upcoming offering of ATI’s Multi Target Tracking and Multi Sensor Data Fusion.  Also, take a look at the schedule of upcoming ATI courses here

Hand-Held Radar Detects Jet?

An ATI Staff Member who has not taken any ATI Radar Courses yet found a story in her Inbox about a highway officer in Texas who was operating a hand-held radar to catch speeders.  As you can read in the following copy of the letter, the officer purportedly locked onto a USMC F/A-18 Hornet Jet.  […]

An ATI Staff Member who has not taken any ATI Radar Courses yet found a story in her Inbox about a highway officer in Texas who was operating a hand-held radar to catch speeders.  As you can read in the following copy of the letter, the officer purportedly locked onto a USMC F/A-18 Hornet Jet.  The story purports that the Jet detected energy from the hand held radar, and automatic tactical systems on the Jet nearly fired on the radar/officer, but the pilot overrode those automatic systems preventing a catastrophic mishap.

Although this story is humorous, it also demonstrates that the writer, and some readers, are not familiar with how hand-held radars work, and how the Tactical Systems on the USMC Jet work.  In fact, a Snopes article gives an excellent explanation of why this story, although humorous and entertaining, is not factual, and could not have actually occurred.  A fascinating explanation of the fallacies associated with this story can be found at   https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/police-radar-missile/

So, in order to better recognize articles like this for what they are, please consider learning more about Radar Systems.  ATI offers 78 courses dealing with Radar, Missiles, and Defense, but our most popular Radar courses are Radar 101, Radar 201, and Radar Principles.  More information on all of these courses can be found on the ATI web page at the following links.

https://aticourses.com/training_classes/radar-101/
https://aticourses.com/training_classes/radar-201-d223/
https://aticourses.com/training_classes/radar-principles/

Quality, Precision, Performance – UAS’s, the future of conventional and shadow wars is here.

A recent article on the Military.com web site shares the story of the latest attack by a swarm of drones and guided missiles on Saudi Oil Plants. Saudi Arabia currently has at least six Patriot batteries, which cost about $1 billion apiece, according to Bloomberg News. But analysts said the systems are designed to defend […]

A recent article on the Military.com web site shares the story of the latest attack by a swarm of drones and guided missiles on Saudi Oil Plants. Saudi Arabia currently has at least six Patriot batteries, which cost about $1 billion apiece, according to Bloomberg News. But analysts said the systems are designed to defend against high-flying ballistic missiles and were vulnerable to swarms of low-and-slow drones and subsonic, ground-hugging cruise missiles. This article highlights the ever changing military world, and the need for ongoing education and training on emerging technology.

From the State Department in 2015 “As other nations begin to employ military UAS more regularly and as the nascent commercial UAS market emerges, the United States has a responsibility to ensure that sales, transfers, and subsequent use of all US-origin UAS are responsible and consistent with US national security and foreign policy interests, including economic security, as well as with US values and international standards.” This issue was discussed in an ATI Blog from 2015. While the UAS market is no longer the new kid on the block, it is ever changing now more than ever. We need to continue effective training and education for ongoing support and future development as well as that of guided missiles as they are now being used in tandem. As we move forward into 2020 the need for continuing training and education on UAS, engineering and missile design and deployment is clearly a worldwide hot spot and needed now more so then ever. Whether the UAS is for conventional or shadow wars, ATI Courses has an education offering to help you navigate these ever emerging technologies. 

Unmanned Aircraft System Fundamentals TBD

Unmanned Air Vehicle Design TBD

Systems Engineering Fundamentals 02/04/2020

Applied Systems Engineering 12/09/2019

Missile Design Development and Systems  3/09/2020

Layered Missile Defense Article and Comments

Missile Defense is a complex problem for the US and US allies such as Israel and Poland. The US Department of Defense has a layered approach of different systems to detect threat missile launches and then to intercept and destroy the incoming missiles. Defense systems include1. Phalanx Close-In Weapons System (CIWS)2. Terminal High Altitude Area Defense […]

Missile Defense is a complex problem for the US and US allies such as Israel and Poland. The US Department of Defense has a layered approach of different systems to detect threat missile launches and then to intercept and destroy the incoming missiles.

 Defense systems include

1. Phalanx Close-In Weapons System (CIWS)

2. Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)

3. Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System

4. Israel’s Iron Dome

5. SkyCeptor This is a good summary article sponsored by Raytheon.

https://breakingdefense.com/2018/10/the-present-and-future-of-layered-missile-defense/?

Equally as interesting are the detailed comments from the Breaking Defense readers that appear at the end of the article. The comments focus on costs and the relative costs of the missiles used by the attackers (say for example North Korea or Iran) and the missile defense system missiles. ATI is interested in your comments about the article and open source articles about Missile Defense Systems cost and performance. ATI has many relevant technical training courses that help to understand the technology and components of Missile Defense Systems. These courses can be presented on-site at your facility or at publically scheduled open enrollment courses. Please email your requests to ati@aticourses.com

https://aticourses.com/catalog_of_all_ATI_courses.htm#radar These courses help understand the Missile Defense technologies

1. Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense- https://aticourses.com/Aegis_Ballistic_Missile_Defense.html

2. Aegis Combat System Engineering- https://aticourses.com/Aegis_Combat_System_Engineering.html

3. AESA Radar and Its Applications https://aticourses.com/Modern_AESA_Radara_Principles.html

4. C4ISR Requirements, Principles& Systems https://aticourses.com/c4isr_requirement_principles.htm

5. Electronic Warfare Against the New Threat https://aticourses.com/Electroni_Warfare_Agains_New_Threat_Environment.html

These courses directly focus on missiles and missile defense.

1. Making Decisions in Missile Defense- https://aticourses.com/making_decisions_in_missile_defense.htm

2. Missile Analysis- https://aticourses.com/missile_systems_analysis.htm

3. Missile Guidance https://aticourses.com/Modern_Missile_Guidance.html

4. Missile System Design https://aticourses.com/tactical_missile_design.htm

5. Modeling, Simulation of Aerospace Vehicles https://aticourses.com/Modeling_Simulation_Analysis_of_Aerospace_Vehicles.html

6. Modeling & Simulation of Missiles in 6 DoF https://aticourses.com/Modeling&SimulationMissilesin6DoF.html

7. Tactical Strategic Missile Guidance Please email your requests for more information to ati@aticourses.com

YouTube – Russian Nuclear Submarine Fires Four Ballistic Missiles

ATI has courses on Missile System Design and Missile System Guidance. View the missile launch salvo using the YouTube link. Russia’s Nuclear Submarine Successfully Test-Fires 4 Bulava intercontinental Ballistic Missiles SSBN Yuriy Dolgorukiy successfully tests 4 Bulava missiles in salvo. The whole video is 2 Min 34 sec. The firing of the 4 missiles takes […]

ATI has courses on Missile System Design and Missile System Guidance. View the missile launch salvo using the YouTube link.

Russia’s Nuclear Submarine Successfully Test-Fires 4 Bulava intercontinental Ballistic Missiles SSBN Yuriy Dolgorukiy successfully tests 4 Bulava missiles in salvo.

The whole video is 2 Min 34 sec. The firing of the 4 missiles takes less than 30 seconds.

The Bulava missile is designed for Russia’s fleet of ballistic missile-carrying Borei-class nuclear submarines. It is capable of delivering up to 10 nuclear warheads at a range of 8,000 kilometers. Russia has been paying ever greater attention to bolstering its nuclear deterrent in recent years as the United States works to deploy anti-ballistic missile defenses in Europe.

Bombers and Subs and Missiles, oh my!

Speaking for myself, I always considered the nuclear triad to include bombers, submarines, and missiles, but, I was wrong. Sandra Erwin points out in her Space News article, we really need to remember that these three components of the triad could not be effective without two other complimentary components, a competent work force to operate […]

Speaking for myself, I always considered the nuclear triad to include bombers, submarines, and missiles, but, I was wrong. Sandra Erwin points out in her Space News article, we really need to remember that these three components of the triad could not be effective without two other complimentary components, a competent work force to operate them, and a modern and reliable Nuclear Command, Control and Communications ( NC3 ) network.

Lt. Gen Jack Weinstein, Air Force Deputy Chief of Staff for Strategic Deterrence and Nuclear Integration recently pointed out that nuclear modernization efforts cannot be strictly focused on subs, bombers, and missiles, but must also be concerned about modernizing the NC3 system, causing him to remark “The Triad also means space capability.” The Nuclear Posture Review reported that many of the components of the current NC3 system are antiquated technology which has not been modernized in almost 30 years. 

Sandra Erwin reports that the Air Force does have programs under way to modernize communications and early-warning satellites, but integration of these new systems will be very complex, and highly trained work force will be needed to build the systems.

Interestingly, Lt. Gen Weinstein has confidence in the military’s ability to train their people to operate these systems, but he expresses concern about educating the civilian workforce which will also need to be involved.

Applied Technology Institute (ATI) can play an important role in preparing the workforce which will support the future nuclear Triad since it offers a diverse collection of courses which cover all of the domains where the Triad will need to operate; air, sea, and space. Please consider looking at the current set of course offerings at ATI and consider taking some of our courses to better position yourself to make significant contributions to solving the complex problems associated with Strategic Deterrence in the future.  

 

Chinese Naval Plans for Subs and Carriers

Do your friends tell you that you surf the Internet too much, or do you tell others that they spend too much time surfing the Internet? Well, it is lucky that someone was surfing, and had the foresight to grab some Chinese Documents during the brief period when they were available online. As reported in […]

Do your friends tell you that you surf the Internet too much, or do you tell others that they spend too much time surfing the Internet?

Well, it is lucky that someone was surfing, and had the foresight to grab some Chinese Documents during the brief period when they were available online. As reported in Popular Science on March 16, “For a brief moment, the China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (CSIC), put online China’s next big naval projects (but quickly pulled them down).” Sure, some conspiracy theorists may claim this was nothing more than a clever way to spread disinformation, but to others, it represents a wealth of accidentally released information about “ China’s ambitions for a world class navy.” What do you think? The article explains that CSIC is a PLAN shipbuilder with a history of building Carriers and Submarines. It is believed that they will build the Type 095 Nuclear Attack Submarine. “The Type 095 SSN will include new noise reduction measures, like an integrated electric propulsion system and possibly a shaftless rim drive, single hull, and electronic noise cancellation.”
The Chinese continue to be concerned about area denial. The article describes that “To defend Chinese home waters and expand the anti-access/area denial umbrella underwater, CSIC is designing an underwater attack and defense system. It could likely be an armed variant of the “Underwater Great Wall” of UUVs, other maritime robots, and seafloor sensors.”

You can read the full article here….. https://www.popsci.com/china-nuclear-submarine-aircraft-carrier-leak

Or if you want to learn more about the concepts detailed in this article, consider taking an ATI course such as the following.
Submarines and Submariners

This is a link to the Singapore report on the McCain collision.

This is a link to the Singapore report on the McCain collision. https://www.mot.gov.sg/docs/default-source/default-document-library/collision-between-alnic-mc-and-uss-john-s-mccain-21-august-2017fbb8a9e0d243486a903b817f70996233.pdf
This is a link to the Singapore report on the McCain collision. https://www.mot.gov.sg/docs/default-source/default-document-library/collision-between-alnic-mc-and-uss-john-s-mccain-21-august-2017fbb8a9e0d243486a903b817f70996233.pdf

New Threats Cause Electronic Warfare to Evolve

The weapons and technologies of war are constantly evolving – changing more rapidly year to year in the 21st Century. Bob Schena, CEO of Rajant Corp. in Malvern, PA, notes, “Spectrum dominance is the new high ground; all weapons systems today are highly reliant on communications of one sort or another, whether global positioning system […]
radarThe weapons and technologies of war are constantly evolving – changing more rapidly year to year in the 21st Century. Bob Schena, CEO of Rajant Corp. in Malvern, PA, notes, “Spectrum dominance is the new high ground; all weapons systems today are highly reliant on communications of one sort or another, whether global positioning system (GPS) or internal communications. If someone can distort GPS or disable onboard systems, you’re toast. On a scale of 1 to 10, it’s a 12. We are so reliant on communications in our style of fighting that it is absolutely critical and will get even more critical. If you’re at a communications disadvantage, I don’t see how you can last very long.” As the lines tend to blur between EW, cyber warfare, and signals intelligence (SIGINT) tending to blur, EW itself is changing as well. U.S. Army, says Maj. Rich-ard Michel, Cyber & EW Operations Troop Commander within the Army’s Asymmetric Warfare Group (AWG) at Fort Meade, MD, notes, “As a result of our better understanding of multi-domain battle and our use of EW, cyber, and space ops as they continue to evolve, we will continue to experience a more advanced and capable Army than has ever been seen in history. AWG’s job is to look at the decision-making process, how that will change doctrine and organizations. New technologies give commanders better options on how to employ that capability. That is an inevitability and an absolute positive for the Army, with greater capabilities and technologies empowering us to accomplish our goals.” Experts note that they will witness even greater speed and evolutionary technologies in the next decade and beyond that few can even partially predict. One that is on everyone’s list, however, is artificial intelligence (AI), which is likely to play a major role in the future of EW as advances in technology are occurring at a record pace. Marc Couture, senior product manager for digital signal processing at the Curtiss-Wright Corp. Defense Solutions Division in Ashburn, VA, notes, “In EW, you need to convert everything to ones and zeros with analog-to-digital converters. In terms of capturing the EM spectrum in an RF microwave sense, we have some products that capture data at 25 gigasamples per second, which is a huge amount and fairly unique,” Couture says; 1 gigasample is one billion samples. “What’s been very instrumental with the A/D converters is the speed of gigasamples per second is getting faster and faster and with greater resolution. With an EW system, then, you can keep an eye on more of the spectrum at the same time, Ten years ago, technology would not have been able to pick out all the signals deep in the noise. But this also means the data becomes a bigger fire hose, so you will need multiple high-power processing to sort it all out.” While evolving technologies advance at a record pace, artificial intelligence is likely to play a major role in EW. Couture also notes that, “In the past in EW, you had a classified list of target signatures, but now there are more and more new threats and to counter some of them – especially if you are in theater in combat and seeing something for the first time – you have cognitive systems, a neural net AI, sometimes called deep learning or machine learning, to do this on the fly,” Couture says. “It’s in the toddler phase now, but these cognitive techniques will begin deploying in the next decade. This will require a lot more processing power than a decade ago. It used to be megaflops, now gigaflops, and becoming teraflops.” For more on this topic: http://www.militaryaerospace.com/articles/print/volume-28/issue-8/special-report/electronic-warfare-evolves-to-meet-new-threats.html?cmpid=enl_mae_wrap_up_2017-10-20&email_address=francescoz@aticourses.com&eid=295596886&bid=1901119 The Applied Technology Institute (ATI) offers a wide variety of up-to-date and in-depth courses in Radars, Missiles, and Defense.

Report – Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Issues for Congress regarding the Aegis BMD program include the following: 1.  required numbers of BMD-capable Aegis ships versus available numbers of BMD-capable Aegis ships; 2.  a proposed reduction in planned procurement quantities of SM-3 Block IB and IIA missiles under the FY2018 budget submission, compared to planned quantities under the FY2017 budget submission; 3.  […]
ATLANTIC OCEAN (Oct. 20, 2015) The Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS The Sullivans (DDG 68) fires a Standard Missile 2 (SM-2) during a live-fire test of the ship's Aegis weapons system Oct. 20, 2015. The Sullivans is participating in At Sea Demonstration 2015 (ASD 15), an exercise testing network interoperability between NATO and allied forces. (U.S. Navy photo by Information Specialist 1st Class Steven Martel/Released) 151020-N-XX999-001 Join the conversation: http://www.navy.mil/viewGallery.asp http://www.facebook.com/USNavy http://www.twitter.com/USNavy http://navylive.dodlive.mil http://pinterest.com https://plus.google.com Issues for Congress regarding the Aegis BMD program include the following: 1.  required numbers of BMD-capable Aegis ships versus available numbers of BMD-capable Aegis ships; 2.  a proposed reduction in planned procurement quantities of SM-3 Block IB and IIA missiles under the FY2018 budget submission, compared to planned quantities under the FY2017 budget submission; 3.  whether the Aegis test facility in Hawaii should be converted into an operational Aegis Ashore site to provide additional BMD capability for defending Hawaii and the U.S. West Coast; 4.  burden sharing—how European naval contributions to European BMD capabilities and operations compare to U.S. naval contributions to European BMD capabilities and operations; 5.  the potential for ship-based lasers, electromagnetic railguns (EMRGs), and hypervelocity projectiles (HVPs) to contribute in coming years to Navy terminal phase BMD operations and the impact this might eventually have on required numbers of ship-based BMD interceptor missiles; 6.  technical risk and test and evaluation issues in the Aegis BMD program; and 7.  the lack of a target for simulating the endo-atmospheric (i.e., final) phase of flight of China’s DF-21 anti-ship ballistic missile. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program Congressional Research Service Continue reading “Report – Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress”

Examples Of Before and After Imagery That Can Assist In Response Recovery and Rebuilding Operation Planning and Assessment.

As Hurricane Irma churned through the Caribbean and up Florida’s coast,   satellites have been capturing high-resolution images of the storm’s damage. Imaging in the Caribbean became possible over the weekend as the clouds moved out of the area. Before-and-after imagery taken between Friday, Sept. 8 and Sept. 11 of several places in the Caribbean: Tortola, […]
As Hurricane Irma churned through the Caribbean and up Florida’s coast,   satellites have been capturing high-resolution images of the storm’s damage. Imaging in the Caribbean became possible over the weekend as the clouds moved out of the area. Before-and-after imagery taken between Friday, Sept. 8 and Sept. 11 of several places in the Caribbean: Tortola, Turks and Caicos, St Maarten, Necker Island, Barbuda and Saint Martin. The “after” images were taken by Digital Globe’s WorldView-3, WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 satellites. Digital Globe has also publicly released pre- and post-event satellite imagery of the areas affected by Hurricane Irma through our Open Data Program, which provides imagery to support recovery efforts in the wake of large-scale natural disasters. Humanitarian Open Street Map Team (HOT) set up mapping tasks for Irma using Digital Globe imagery in preparation for the storm. Additional tasks will be established once more post-event imagery is available, as will a Tomnod crowd sourcing campaign.   Port Barbuda PortBarbudaPost StMaartenPreStMaartenPostPhotos credit to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Department of Commerce.

Photography Contest for the Midshipmen of the United States Naval Academy

ATI is a supporter and follower of the United States Naval Academy USNA. Several of our instructors are Naval Academy graduates. The USNA held a photography contest for the midshipmen to highlight their summer training activities around the globe. These are some of the best images. It shows a diversity of places the USNA midshipmen […]
ATI is a supporter and follower of the United States Naval Academy USNA. Several of our instructors are Naval Academy graduates. The USNA held a photography contest for the midshipmen to highlight their summer training activities around the globe. These are some of the best images. It shows a diversity of places the USNA midshipmen go over their working summer. http://www.capitalgazette.com/multimedia/photos/cgnews-ac-cn-usna-summer-photo-contest-usna-20170924-pg-photogallery.html

Russian hacker group ‘CyberBerkut’ returns to public light with allegations against Clinton

A Twitter account tied to a group that the Defense Intelligence Agency recently described as “Russian hackers … supporting Russia’s military operations” returned to the spotlight Wednesday by posting a message that alleges Ukrainian government officials and businessmen laundered money and sent it to Hillary Clinton by making donations to the Clinton Foundation. These allegations, a vague […]
CyberBerkutCyberBerkutA Twitter account tied to a group that the Defense Intelligence Agency recently described as “Russian hackers … supporting Russia’s military operations” returned to the spotlight Wednesday by posting a message that alleges Ukrainian government officials and businessmen laundered money and sent it to Hillary Clinton by making donations to the Clinton Foundation. These allegations, a vague and loosely defined set of financial connections described in a single graphic and related blog post, could not be confirmed. The blog post alludes to an inappropriate relationship between Ukrainian billionaire Victor Pinchuk and the Clinton family. But emails that were supposedly stolen and posted in this blog post do not prove that such a conspiracy occurred. An attempt to contact the group went unanswered. The Tweet posted Wednesday by this “CyberBerkut” group is the first such message posted publicly since January after the account shared an image of a redacted email it claims revealed plans by the U.S. government to doctor evidence to suggest that Russian hackers had interfered in the 2016 U.S. election. Read More Here.

Russian hacker group ‘CyberBerkut’ returns to public light with allegations against Clinton

  A Twitter account tied to a group that the Defense Intelligence Agency recently described as “Russian hackers … supporting Russia’s military operations” returned to the spotlight Wednesday by posting a message that alleges Ukrainian government officials and businessmen laundered money and sent it to Hillary Clinton by making donations to the Clinton Foundation. These allegations, a […]
CyberBerkut   A Twitter account tied to a group that the Defense Intelligence Agency recently described as “Russian hackers … supporting Russia’s military operations” returned to the spotlight Wednesday by posting a message that alleges Ukrainian government officials and businessmen laundered money and sent it to Hillary Clinton by making donations to the Clinton Foundation. These allegations, a vague and loosely defined set of financial connections described in a single graphic and related blog post, could not be confirmed. The blog post alludes to an inappropriate relationship between Ukrainian billionaire Victor Pinchuk and the Clinton family. But emails that were supposedly stolen and posted in this blog post do not prove that such a conspiracy occurred. An attempt to contact the group went unanswered.
The Tweet posted Wednesday by this “CyberBerkut” group is the first such message posted publicly since January after the account shared an image of a redacted email it claims revealed plans by the U.S. government to doctor evidence to suggest that Russian hackers had interfered in the 2016 U.S. election.

HACKING TRIDENT: A Growing Threat

This 38 page paper reviews the growing potential for cyber-attack on the UK’s operational fleet of Vanguard-class submarines armed with nuclear-tipped Trident II D-5 ballistic missiles, and some of the implications for strategic stability. http://www.basicint.org/sites/default/files/HACKING%20UK%20TRIDENT.pdf Malware injection during manufacturing, mid-life refurbishment or software updates and data transmission interception allow potential adversaries to conduct long-term cyber […]
This 38 page paper reviews the growing potential for cyber-attack on the UK’s operational fleet of Vanguard-class submarines armed with nuclear-tipped Trident II D-5 ballistic missiles, and some of the implications for strategic stability. http://www.basicint.org/sites/default/files/HACKING%20UK%20TRIDENT.pdf Malware injection during manufacturing, mid-life refurbishment or software updates and data transmission interception allow potential adversaries to conduct long-term cyber operations. BASIC has already highlighted the future potential for emerging technologies to deliver high confidence in global detection of submarines.1 Future weaponized underwater drones may facilitate close proximity kinetic and cyber-attacks on ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs). The report concludes that the vulnerability to cyber attacks is real. It can be reduced by significant, vigilant and continuous cyber protection, but cannot be eliminated. It is therefore essential that in addition to significant investment in cyber defense, those responsible also need to consider strategies that build resilience within the systems, and to incorporate this threat into broader assessments relevant to the choice of weapon systems, platforms and broader defense and security strategies For more information on this cyber threat, visit the article: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/hacking-nuclear-submarines-matthew-rosenquist The Applied Technology Institute (ATI) offers courses in cyber security to help government and private facilities worldwide from learning how to mitigate or prevent such occurrences. Among the courses ATI offers in cyber security is Cyber Leadership Course (CLC) with the following upcoming dates in Hanover, Maryland: https://aticourses.com/Cyber_Leader_Course.htm September 6–7 2017 and October 1–2 2017. In addition, ATI offers Tactical Digital Forensics from December 4–15 2017, also in Hanover, MD. For more information or to view ATI’s schedule of courses, visit aticourses.com or contact us at (410) 956-8805.

Virginia Class Attack Submarine (SSNs) Program Status and Shortfall Report to Congress

Summary of Congressional Research Service Report https://news.usni.org/2017/06/01/report-congress-virginia-class-attack-submarine-program The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear-powered attack submarines since FY1998. The two Virginia-class boats requested for procurement in FY2017 are to be the 25th and 26 th boats in the class. The 10 Virginia-class boats programmed for procurement in FY2014- FY2018 (two per year for five […]
Summary of Congressional Research Service Report
The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear-powered attack submarines since FY1998. The two Virginia-class boats requested for procurement in FY2017 are to be the 25th and 26 th boats in the class. The 10 Virginia-class boats programmed for procurement in FY2014- FY2018 (two per year for five years) are being procured under a multiyear-procurement (MYP) contract.
From FY2025 to FY2036, the number of SSNs is projected to experience a dip or valley, reaching a minimum of 41 boats (i.e., 25 boats, or about 38%, less than the 66-boat force-level goal) in FY2029. This projected valley is a consequence of having procured a relatively small number of SSNs during the 1990s, in the early years of the post-Cold War era. Some observers are concerned that this projected valley in SSN force levels could lead to a period of heightened operational strain for the SSN force, and perhaps a period of weakened conventional deterrence against potential adversaries.
The Navy has been exploring options for mitigating the projected valley. Procuring additional Virginia-class boats in the near term is one of those options. In that connection, the Navy has expressed interest in procuring an additional Virginia-class boat in FY2021. Congress also has the option of funding the procurement of one or more additional Virginia-class boats in FY2018-FY2020.
For more information attend
Submarines and Submariners 19-Sep-17 21-Sep-18
Jim Jenkins, President

Protecting the Soldier: U.S. Army Orders More Q-53 Counterfire Radars from Lockheed Martin

Lockheed Martin will manufacture additional AN/TPQ-53 counterfire radar systems for the U.S. Army under a $1.6 billion order-dependent contract. The Q-53 radar system supports troops in combat by detecting, classifying, tracking and identifying the location of enemy indirect fire in either 360- or 90-degree modes. Lockheed Martin completed the 100th Q-53 radar system for the […]
Lockheed Martin will manufacture additional AN/TPQ-53 counterfire radar systems for the U.S. Army under a $1.6 billion order-dependent contract. The Q-53 radar system supports troops in combat by detecting, classifying, tracking and identifying the location of enemy indirect fire in either 360- or 90-degree modes. Lockheed Martin completed the 100th Q-53 radar system for the Army in January and is manufacturing multiple Q-53 radar systems per month. Since Lockheed Martin won the development contract for the Q-53 radar in 2007, the company has won five additional contracts for a total of more than 100 radar systems, 95 systems have been delivered to the Army. With this full-rate production contract award, the Army’s complement of Q-53 radar systems will total more than 170. “The Q-53 system helps troops know what is going on around them in an increasingly complicated world,” said Rick Herodes, director of Lockheed Martin’s Q-53 radar program. “What’s so special about the Q-53 radar system is the inherent flexibility of its software controlled active electronically scanned array (AESA). Our engineers can adjust the Q-53’s software to address emerging threats. Having control in the software allows quick reaction to whatever comes next – so the first Q-53 radar system off the line could be quickly updated to be just as capable as the 170th Q-53 radar system.” Lockheed Martin is the only company producing active electronically scanned array (AESA) radars for the Army. Over the last 10 years new threats have emerged including unmanned aerial systems (UAS). Thanks to the flexibility of open architecture designs, simple software modifications can be made to adjust radar systems, including the Q-53 radar, to meet various missions. The U.S. Army awarded Lockheed Martin a $28 million contract in November for “quick reaction capability to add counter-unmanned aerial system to the AN/TPQ-53 radar system” simultaneous with its core counterfire mission. The Q-53 radar can be readily adapted to provide both air surveillance and counterfire target acquisition in one tactical sensor. The radar system demonstrated its multimission radar (MMR) capability by identifying and tracking aerial systems and passing that information to a command and control node, a key capability as the battlespace rapidly becomes more crowded with emerging air threats. The Q-53 supports counter-insurgency missions as well as high-intensity combat operations. The system is highly mobile on the battlefield; it can be set up in five minutes, taken down in two minutes and supports two-man operation. Work on the Q-53 radars is performed at Lockheed Martin facilities in Syracuse and Owego, New York, Moorestown, New Jersey, and Clearwater, Florida. For additional information, visit our website: www.lockheedmartin.com/us/products/tpq53.html  

​Report to Congress on Iran’s Foreign and Defense Policies

  Contents Introduction 5 Iran’s Policy Motivators   5 Threat Perception  5 Ideology  6 National Interests  6 Factional Interests and Competition   7 Instruments of Iran’s National Security Strategy  8 Financial and Military Support to Allied Regimes and Groups  8 Other Political Action  11 Diplomacy  11 Iran’s Nuclear and Defense Programs  12 Nuclear Program  12 […]
 

Contents

Introduction 5 Iran’s Policy Motivators   5 Threat Perception  5 Ideology  6 National Interests  6 Factional Interests and Competition   7 Instruments of Iran’s National Security Strategy  8 Financial and Military Support to Allied Regimes and Groups  8 Other Political Action  11 Diplomacy  11 Iran’s Nuclear and Defense Programs  12 Nuclear Program  12 Iran’s Nuclear Intentions and Activities  12 International Diplomatic Efforts to Address Iran’s Nuclear Program 14 Developments during the Obama Administration  15 Missile Programs and Chemical and Biological Weapons Capability 17 Chemical and Biological Weapons 17 Missiles 18 Conventional and “Asymmetric Warfare” Capability 21 Military-Military Relationships and Potential New Arms Buys  21 Asymmetric Warfare Capacity  22 Iran’s Regional and International Activities  25 Near East Region 25 The Persian Gulf 25 Iranian Policy on Iraq, Syria, and the Islamic State  36 Iraq  36 Syria  38 Iran’s Policy toward Israel: Supporting Hamas and Hezbollah 39 Hamas 40 Hezbollah  41 Yemen42 Turkey 43 Egypt 44 South and Central Asia 44 The South Caucasus: Azerbaijan and Armenia 44 Central Asia  45 Turkmenistan 46 Tajikistan 46 Kazakhstan  47 Uzbekistan  47 South Asia 48 Afghanistan 48 Pakistan  49 India  50 Sri Lanka 51 Russia 51 Europe  52 East Asia 53 China  53 Japan and South Korea  54 North Korea 54 Latin America 55 Venezuela 56 Argentina 56 Africa 57 Sudan 58 Prospects and Alternative Scenarios 59  

Figures

Figure 1. Map of Near East …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25 Figure 2. Major Persian Gulf Military Facilities ………………………………………………………………… 34 Figure 3. South and Central Asia Region ………………………………………………………………………….. 44 Figure 4. Latin America ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55 Figure 5. Sudan ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57

Tables

Table 1. Major Iran or Iran-Related Terrorism Attacks or Plots ……………………………………………. 10 Table 2. Iran’s Missile Arsenal ………………………………………………………………………………………… 20 Table 3. Iran’s Conventional Military Arsenal …………………………………………………………………… 23 Table 4. The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) …………………………………………………… 24 Table 5. Military Assets of the Gulf Cooperation Council Member States …………………………….. 35  

Contacts

Author Contact Information ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 61   Iran’s national security policy is the product of many, and sometimes competing, factors: the ideology of Iran’s Islamic revolution; Iranian leadership’s perception of threats to the regime and to the country; long-standing Iranian national interests; and the interaction of the Iranian regime’s various factions and constituencies. Some experts assert that the goal of Iran’s national security strategy is to overturn a power structure in the Middle East that Iran asserts favors the United States and its allies Israel, Saudi Arabia, and other Sunni Muslim Arab regimes. Iran characterizes its support for Shiite and other Islamist movements as support for the “oppressed” and asserts that Saudi Arabia, in particular, is instigating sectarian tensions and trying to exclude Iran from regional affairs. Others interpret Iran as primarily attempting to protect itself from U.S. or other efforts to invade or intimidate it or to change its regime. Its strategy might, alternatively or additionally, represent an attempt to enhance Iran’s international prestige or restore a sense of “greatness” reminiscent of the ancient Persian empires. From 2010 until 2016, Iran’s foreign policy also focused on attempting to mitigate the effects of international sanctions on Iran. Iran employs a number of different tools in pursuing its national security policy. Some Iranian policy tools are common to most countries: traditional diplomacy and the public promotion of Iran’s values and interests. Iran also has financially supported regional politicians and leaders. Of most concern to U.S. policymakers is that Iran provides direct material support to armed groups, some of which use terrorism to intimidate or retaliate against Israel or other regional opponents of Iran. Iran’s armed support to Shiite-dominated allied governments, such as those of Syria and Iraq, also has fueled Sunni popular resentment. Iran’s national security policy focuses most intently on the Near East region, including on U.S. operations, allies, and activities in that region. It is that region where all the various components of Iran’s foreign policy interact. Iran’s policy also seems to be directed at influencing the policies and actions of big powers, such as those in Europe as well as Russia, that are active in the Near East—either as partners or antagonists of U.S. interests in that region. Some experts forecast that Iran’s foreign and defense policies would shift after international sanctions were eased in January 2016 in accordance with the July 2015 multilateral nuclear agreement with Iran (Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, JCPOA). Additional financial resources enable Iran to expand its regional influence further. Others assessed that the nuclear agreement would cause Iran to moderate its regional behavior in order not to jeopardize the agreement and its benefits. During 2016, Obama Administration officials and U.S. reports asserted that there was little, if any, alteration of Iran’s national security policies. On February 1, 2017, the Trump Administration cited Iran’s continued “malign activities” and repeated ballistic missile tests, and asserted that Iran “is now feeling emboldened” and that the Administration was “officially putting Iran on notice.” The Administration subsequently sanctioned additional Iran missile entities under existing authorities and maintained that a “deliberative process” was underway that could result in further actions not contravening the JCPOA. Recent U.S. statements and press reports indicate the Administration might be considering military efforts to set back Iranian influence in Yemen, and perhaps elsewhere. Iran has used the JCPOA to ease its international diplomatic isolation and to try to develop itself as a regional energy and trade hub and to explore new weapons buys. Supreme Leader Ali Khamene’i and key hardline institutions, such as the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), oppose any compromises of Iran’s core goals, but support Iran’s reintegrate into regional and international diplomacy. View full report here.

First SPY-6(V) Radar BMD Test

Applied Technology Institute (ATI Courses) offers a variety of courses on Radar, Missiles & Defense.  The news below would be of interest to our readers. The U.S. Navy successfully conducted a flight test March 15 with the AN/SPY-6(V) Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) off the west coast of Hawaii, Naval Sea Systems Command announced in […]
An Arleigh Burke class destroyer
An Arleigh Burke class destroyer
Applied Technology Institute (ATI Courses) offers a variety of courses on Radar, Missiles & Defense.  The news below would be of interest to our readers. The U.S. Navy successfully conducted a flight test March 15 with the AN/SPY-6(V) Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) off the west coast of Hawaii, Naval Sea Systems Command announced in a March 30 release. During a flight test designated Vigilant Hunter, the AN/SPY-6(V) AMDR searched for, detected and maintained track on a short-range ballistic missile target launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Kauai. This is the first in a series of ballistic missile defense flight tests planned for the AN/SPY-6(V) AMDR. Read more here.