Apollo 11- Remembering the “Great Leap for Mankind” 50 Years Later.

In May 1961, President John F. Kennedy issued a challenge to the nation to have a U.S. manned mission land on the moon within a decade. With the Cold War ongoing and the Soviets leading in space efforts, Kennedy’s call served to unite America’s best and brightest scientists and engineers and to invigorate the space […]

In May 1961, President John F. Kennedy issued a challenge to the nation to have a U.S. manned mission land on the moon within a decade. With the Cold War ongoing and the Soviets leading in space efforts, Kennedy’s call served to unite America’s best and brightest scientists and engineers and to invigorate the space dreams of the American people. The challenges in this endeavor meant that thousands of engineers, scientists and technicians would have to develop, create and test concepts and equipment that did not yet exist.

While mankind will always remember Neal Armstrong’s famous words and the names of the three Apollo 11 astronauts, what should not be forgotten is the remarkable achievements of the thousands of those who remained behind the scenes working and creating to bring about the ultimate success of the mission. All of NASA’s great achievements are and will continue to be the result of NASA employees and their dedicated and tireless work.

The Apollo 11 mission was the “proof of concept” mission that proved that NASA, with a dedicated country behind it, could achieve the “impossible”. The mission not only expanded our hopes, dreams and expectations but demonstrated our need for more NASA personnel engaged in all aspects of aerospace pursuits.

What must be remembered is that the moon landing was the culmination of many years of space efforts by NASA, building on the advances of prior space programs and achievements. Thousands of NASA pioneers worked on space programs such as Project Mercury, the first of NASA’s man-in-space programs and the Gemini Mission.

Fifty years ago, space technology was still in its infancy. The Apollo spacecraft computers that enabled men to walk on the moon had less processing power than that of a modern cellphone. So much progress has been made since that time, largely as a result of NASA’s commitment and the brilliant work of its dedicated personnel, that space exploration opportunities are now endless. Only imagination, training and funding are needed to reach new goals.

Apollo 11 launched from Cape Kennedy on July 16, 1969, carrying Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin into history. Millions of people were glued to television sets as Armstrong’s first step on the moon was televised live on July 20, 1969. “One small step for (a) man, one giant leap for mankind” became one of space histories most famous quotations even though there is confusion as to the actual quote. Armstrong states that he said, “one small step for a man, while most heard “for man”. Either way, it was most certainly a great leap forward for mankind.

Space exploration is still the realm of unbounded opportunities. Space News provides several articles in their July 15, 2019 issue.
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/apollo-moon-landing-anniversary-books

A list of all the Space Related Courses offered by ATI can be found at
https://aticourses.com/catalog_of_all_ATI_courses.htm#space

The current schedule is at
https://aticourses.com/schedule.html#spaceSatellite

If you remember the Apollo landings, What effect did they have on your life and career choices? Please add your comments.

Continue reading “Apollo 11- Remembering the “Great Leap for Mankind” 50 Years Later.”

Welcome to the US Space Force, ATI is here to support you

There are currently 5 branches of the Armed Forces, namely, Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force,  and the Coast Guard.  However, in light of changing needs and priorities, President Trump issued a new directive in February to establish the US Space Force as the sixth military branch,  which will be within the Department of the Air […]

There are currently 5 branches of the Armed Forces, namely, Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force,  and the Coast Guard.  However, in light of changing needs and priorities, President Trump issued a new directive in February to establish the US Space Force as the sixth military branch,  which will be within the Department of the Air Force. 

This directive can be found at  

https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/text-space-policy-directive-4-establishment-united-states-space-force/

The directive states that “ Although United States space systems have historically maintained a technological advantage over those of our potential adversaries, those potential adversaries are now advancing their space capabilities and actively developing ways to deny our use of space in a crisis or conflict.  It is imperative that the United States adapt its national security organizations, policies, doctrine, and capabilities to deter aggression and protect our interests.”

The directive provides the following priorities for the Space Force:

(a)  Protecting the Nation’s interests in space and the peaceful use of space for all responsible actors, consistent with applicable law, including international law;

(b)  Ensuring unfettered use of space for United States national security purposes, the United States economy, and United States persons, partners, and allies;

(c)  Deterring aggression and defending the Nation,
United States allies, and United States interests from hostile acts in and from space;

(d)  Ensuring that needed space capabilities are integrated and available to all United States Combatant Commands;

(e)  Projecting military power in, from, and to space in support of our Nation’s interests; and

(f)  Developing, maintaining, and improving a community of professionals focused on the national security demands of the space domain.

The directive specifies that Space Force will be lead by a civilian to be known as the Undersecretary of the Air Force for Space, and will be appointed by the President and approved by the Senate.  The directive specifies that a senior military officer ( General or Admiral ) will serve as the Chief of Staff of the Space Force, and will serve as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 

Applied Technology Institute looks forward to providing training to the workforce which will be needed to support the US Space Force. 

A list of all the Space Related Courses offered by ATI can be found at

https://aticourses.com/catalog_of_all_ATI_courses.htm#space

 

Specific and upcoming Space-Related Courses include:

Communications Payload Design

Mar 19-22, 2019 Columbia, MD

 Tactical Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) System

Mar 25-28, 2019 Columbia, MD

 Space Mission Structures

Apr 16-18, 2019 Littleton, CO

 Vibration Testing of Small Satellites

Apr 30-May 1, 2019 Littleton, CO

 Satellite Communications- Introduction

May 1-3, 2019 Columbia, MD 

If your organization requires Space-Related Training which you do not currently see in our Course Offerings, please give us a call and we will try to accommodate your needs. 

It Will Be Historic: New Horizons Team Prepares for January 1, 2019 Flyby of Kuiper Belt Ultima Thule

Applied Technology Institute (ATI or ATIcourses) has been following the New Horizons Mission to Pluto for years (since launch in 2006). Now New Horizons is on to the Kuiper Belt object (KBO) nicknamed Ultima Thule. New Horizons will fly past and image the Ultima Thule on January 1, 2019. Several of ATI instructors have been […]

Applied Technology Institute (ATI or ATIcourses) has been following the New Horizons Mission to Pluto for years (since launch in 2006). Now New Horizons is on to the Kuiper Belt object (KBO) nicknamed Ultima Thule. New Horizons will fly past and image the Ultima Thule on January 1, 2019.

Several of ATI instructors have been lead scientists for the New Horizons mission. If you are working in Space and Spacecraft it is good to take classes and learn from real-world experts who have designed and operated successful spacecraft.

This is a good article to keep you up to date.
https://www.space.com/42252-new-horizons-team-ultima-thule-flyby.html?

If you have interest ATI can send you updates in on our blog and our newsletter.
https://secure.campaigner.com/CSB/Public/Form.aspx

Background

New Horizons is a space probe launched by NASA on 19 January 2006, to the dwarf planet Pluto and on an escape trajectory from the Sun. It is the first man-made spacecraft to go to Pluto. Its flight took eight years. It arrived at the Pluto–Charon system on July 14, 2015. It flew near Pluto and took photographs and measurements while it passed. At about 1 kilobit per second, it took 15 months to transmit them back to Earth.

ATI instructors who helped plan, develop and engineer the New Horizons Mission. These include the following engineers and scientists, with their bios and links to their related ATI courses.

1. Dr. Alan Stern https://aticourses.com/planetary_science.htm

Dr. Alan Stern is a planetary scientist, space program executive, aerospace consultant, and author. In 2010, he was elected to be the President and CEO of The Golden Spike Company, a commercial space corporation planning human lunar expeditions. Additionally, since 2009, he has been an Associate Vice President at the Southwest Research Institute, and since 2008 has had his own aerospace consulting practice.
Dr. Stern is the Principal Investigator (PI) of NASA’s $720M New Horizon’s Pluto-Kuiper Belt mission, the largest PI-led space mission ever launched by NASA. New Horizons launched in 2006 and arrived on July 14, 2015. Dr. Stern is also the PI of two instruments aboard New Horizons, the Alice UV spectrometer and the Ralph Visible Imager/IR Spectrometer.

2. Eric Hoffman
https://aticourses.com/effective_design_reviews.htm
https://aticourses.com/spacecraft_quality.htm

Eric Hoffman has designed space-borne communications and navigation equipment and performed systems engineering on many APL satellites and communications systems. He has authored over 60 papers and holds 8 patents in these fields. Mr. Hoffman was involved in the proposal (as well as several prior Pluto mission concepts). He chaired the major system-level design reviews (and now teaches the course Effective Design Reviews). He was Space Department Chief Engineer during the concept, design, fabrication, and test of New Horizons. His still actively consulting in the field. He is an Associate Fellow of the AIAA and coauthor of the leading textbook Fundamentals of Space Systems

3. Chris DeBoy https://aticourses.com/Satellite_Communications_Design_Engineering.htm

Chris DeBoy leads the RF Engineering Group in the Space Department at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, and is a member of APL’s Principal Professional Staff. He has over 20 years of experience in satellite communications, from systems engineering (he is the lead RF communications engineer for the New Horizons Mission to Pluto) to flight hardware design for both Low-Earth orbit and deep-space missions. He holds a BSEE from Virginia Tech, a Master’s degree in Electrical Engineering from Johns Hopkins, and teaches the satellite communications course for the Johns Hopkins University.

4. Dr. Mark E. Pittelkau https://aticourses.com/attitude_determination.htm

Dr. Pittelkau was previously with the Applied Physics Laboratory, Orbital Sciences Corporation, CTA Space Systems (now Orbital), and Swales Aerospace. His experience in satellite systems covers all phases of design and operation, including conceptual design, implementation, and testing of attitude control systems, attitude and orbit determination, and attitude sensor alignment and calibration, control-structure interaction analysis, stability and jitter analysis, and post-launch support. His current interests are precision attitude determination, attitude sensor calibration, orbit determination, and optimization of attitude maneuvers. Dr. Pittelkau earned the B.S. and Ph. D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from Tennessee Technological University and the M.S. degree in EE from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

5. Douglas Mehoke (and others) https://aticourses.com/spacecraft_thermal_control.htm

Douglas Mehoke is the Assistant Group Supervisor and Technology Manager for the Mechanical System Group in the Space Department at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. He has worked in the field of spacecraft and instrument thermal design for 30 years, and has a wide background in the fields of heat transfer and fluid mechanics. He has been the lead thermal engineer on a variety spacecraft and scientific instruments, including MSX, CONTOUR, and New Horizons. He is presently the Technical Lead for the development of the Solar Probe Plus Thermal Protection System. He was the original thermal engineer for New Horizons, the mechanical system engineer, and is currently the spacecraft damage lead for the flyby Hazard Team. Other JHU/APL are currently teaching the Spacecraft Thermal Control course.

6. Steven Gemeny https://aticourses.com/ground_systems_design.htm

Steve Gemeny is a Principal Program Engineer and a former Senior Member of the Professional Staff at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, where he served as Ground Station Lead for the TIMED mission to explore Earth’s atmosphere and Lead Ground System Engineer on the New Horizons mission to explore Pluto by 2020. Mr. Gemeny is an experienced professional in the field of Ground Station and Ground System design in both the commercial world and on NASA Science missions with a wealth of practical knowledge spanning nearly three decades. Mr. Gemeny delivers his experiences and knowledge to his ATIcourses’ students with an informative and entertaining presentation style. Mr Gemeny is Director Business Development at Syntonics LLC, working in RF over fiber product enhancement, new application development for RF over fiber technology, oversight of advanced DOD SBIR/STTR research and development activities related to wireless sensors and software defined antennas.

7. John Penn https://aticourses.com/fundamentals_of_RF_engineering.html

John Penn is currently the Team Lead for RFIC Design at Army Research Labs. Previously, he was a full-time engineer at the Applied Physics Laboratory for 26 years where he contributed to the New Horizons Mission. He joined the Army Research Laboratory in 2008. Since 1989, he has been a part-time professor at Johns Hopkins University where he teaches RF & Microwaves I & II, MMIC Design, and RFIC Design. He received a B.E.E. from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1980, an M.S. (EE) from Johns Hopkins University (JHU) in 1982, and a second M.S. (CS) from JHU in 1988.

8. Timothy Cole
https://aticourses.com/space_based_lasers.htm
https://aticourses.com/Tactical_Intelligence_Surveillance_Reconnaissance_System_Engineering.htm
https://aticourses.com/Wireless_Sensor_Networking.htm

Timothy Cole is a leading authority with 30 years of experience exclusively working in electro-optical systems as a system and design engineer. While at Applied Physics Laboratory for 21 years, Tim was awarded the NASA Achievement Award in connection with the design, development, and operation of the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Laser Radar and was also the initial technical lead for the New Horizons LOng-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI instrument). He has presented technical papers addressing space-based laser altimetry all over the US and Europe. His industry experience has been focused on the systems engineering and analysis associated development of optical detectors, wireless ad hoc remote sensing, exoatmospheric sensor design and now leads ICESat-2 ATLAS altimeter calibration effort.

9. Jay Jenkins https://aticourses.com/spacecraft_solar_arrays.htm

Jay Jenkins is a Systems Engineer in the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate at NASA and an Associate Fellow of the AIAA. His 24-year aerospace career provided many years of experience in design, analysis, and test of aerospace power systems, solar arrays, and batteries. His career has afforded him opportunities for hands-on fabrication and testing, concurrent with his design responsibilities. He was recognized as a winner of the ASME International George Westinghouse Silver Medal for his development of the first solar arrays beyond Mars’ orbit and the first solar arrays to orbit the planet, Mercury. He was recognized with two Best Paper Awards in the area of Aerospace Power Systems.
See some of ATI’s earlier blog posts
https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/tag/douglas-mehoke/
https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/tag/mission-operations-center-at-apl/

The US Air Force Plans to buy new jam-resistant GPS satellites

Applied Technology Institute offers the following courses on the dates below: GPS & International Competitors 23-Apr-18 26-Apr-18 Columbia MD We think the news below will be of interest to our readers. The U.S. Air Force wants 22 new GPS satellites that are built to resist jamming and electronic interference. It would spend around $2 billion […]
Applied Technology Institute offers the following courses on the dates below: GPS & International Competitors
23-Apr-18 26-Apr-18 Columbia MD
We think the news below will be of interest to our readers.
The U.S. Air Force wants 22 new GPS satellites that are built to resist jamming and electronic interference. It would spend around $2 billion on the new satellites for the GPS 3 constellation in the next five years. The production of all 22 satellites is expected to be worth as much as $10 billion “The GPS 3 that we are moving toward is more jam-resistant, and it is intended to be able to operate in a contested environment,” Secretary of the Air Force Heather Wilson said. The constellation of 31 GPS 2 satellites currently in orbit will remain operational until at least 2021. The Air Force has already ordered 10 GPS 3 satellites from Lockheed Martin. But, the Air Force has now decided it needs to quit buying up those GPS 3 satellites and go back to the drawing board. Lockheed Martin will most likely bid for the contract to build the new jam-resistant satellites, but other contractors like Boeing and Northrop Grumman are expected to try as well. Development of the new satellites would take place in 2019.

Remote Sensing Before and After Hurricane Harvey

The value of remote sensing is shown again with images of before and after Hurricane Harvey. Wow – Take a look! The Ny times featured Digital Globe images of the areas of Texas that were severely hit by Hurricane Harvey. There are also street level photographs to show the local spots before and after Harvey. […]
800px-Harvey_2017-08-25_2231ZThe value of remote sensing is shown again with images of before and after Hurricane Harvey. Wow – Take a look! The Ny times featured Digital Globe images of the areas of Texas that were severely hit by Hurricane Harvey. There are also street level photographs to show the local spots before and after Harvey. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/08/29/us/houston-before-and-after-hurricane-harvey.html?mcubz=3 If you are interested in learning more about remote sensing from satellites the Applied Technology Institute (ATIcourses) has in-depth technical training programs. https://aticourses.com/Optical_Communications_Systems.htm https://aticourses.com/synthetic_aperture_radar.html https://aticourses.com/hyperspectral_imaging.htm The Washington Post has great images of the the rainfall rate relative to historic averages. The claim is that some Texas areas had a rainfall rate that is a 0.1% chance flood event in a year or 1 in 1000 in a year. “A new analysis from the University of Wisconsin’s Space Science and Engineering Center has determined that Harvey is a 1-in-1,000-year flood event that has overwhelmed an enormous section of Southeast Texas equivalent in size to New Jersey.” Harvey released 40 inches to 45 inches of rain in a few days over areas of Texas or about 24.5 trillion gallons of water. Huge amount! – that is 3.5 ft in some areas. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/capital-weather-gang/wp/2017/08/31/harvey-is-a-1000-year-flood-event-unprecedented-in-scale/ The prediction of the frequency of strong flooding is tricky. The definitions and methods matter and can be slanted to make the author’s point. See the many comments to the above article. By some measures this is the third 500 year flood in 3 years for Houston. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2017/08/29/houston-is-experiencing-its-third-500-year-flood-in-3-years-how-is-that-possible/ Please update this post with useful articles about the analysis of the Harvey rainfall and flooding in comparison to other major US flood events.

GREAT OLD, BIG, HUGE BLACK HOLES

In 1905 Albert Einstein employed one of the most powerful brains on planet Earth to puzzle out an elusive concept called “The Special Theory of Relativity”.  Ten years later he used those same brain cells to develop his even more powerful “General Theory of Relativity”. Figure 1 highlights his most dramatic proposal for proving – […]
In 1905 Albert Einstein employed one of the most powerful brains on planet Earth to puzzle out an elusive concept called “The Special Theory of Relativity”.  Ten years later he used those same brain cells to develop his even more powerful “General Theory of Relativity”. Figure 1 highlights his most dramatic proposal for proving – or disproving! – his General Theory of Relativity.  The test he proposed had to take place during a total eclipse of the sun.  For, according to The General Theory of Relativity, light from a more distant star would be bent by about one two-thousandths of a degree when it swept by the edge of the sun. Four years later (in 1919) the talented British astronomer Arthur Eddington in pursuit of a total eclipse of the sun, ventured to the Crimean Peninsula to perform the test Einstein had proposed based on the idea that “starlight would swerve measurably as it passed through the heavy gravity of the sun, a dimple in the fabric of the universe.”* A black hole comes into existence when a star converts all of its hydrogen into helium and collapses into a much smaller ball that is so dense nothing can escape from its gravitational pull, not even light. Capture3 Figure 1:  In 1915, when he finally worked out his General Theory of Relativity, Albert Einstein proposed three clever techniques for testing its validity.  Four years later, in 1919 the British astronomer, Arthur Eddington, took advantage of one of those tests during a total eclipse of the sun to demonstrate that, when a light beam passes near a massive celestial body, it is bent by the local gravitational field as predicted by Einstein’s theory.  This distinctive bending is similar to the manner a baseball headed toward home plate is bent downward by the gravitational pull of the earth. The existence of black holes was inadvertently predicted by a mathematical relationship Sir Isaac Newton understood and employed in 1687 in developing many of his most powerful scientific predictions, including the rather weird concept of escape velocity.  As Figure 2 indicates, it is called the Vis Viva equation. Start by solving the Vis Viva equation for the radius Re, then plug in the speed of light, C, as a value for the escape velocity, Ve.  The resulting radius Re is the so-called “event horizon”, which equals the radius at which light cannot escape from an extremely dense sphere of mass, M.  As the calculation on the right-hand side of Figure 2 indicates, if we could somehow compressed the earth down to a radius of 0.35 inches – while preserving its total mass light waves inside the sphere would be unable to escape and, therefore, could not be seen by an observer.  The radius of the event horizon associated with a spherical body of mass, M, is directly proportional to the total mass involved. Capture4 Figure 2:  The Vis Viva equation was developed and applied repeatedly by Isaac Newton when he was evaluating various gravity-induced phenomena.  Properly applied, the Vis Viva equation predicts that sufficiently dense celestial bodies generate such strong gravitational fields that nothing – not even a beam of light – can escape their clutches.  Today’s astronomers are discovering numerous examples of this counterintuitive effect.  Black holes are one result. As Figure 3 indicates, an enormous black hole 50 million light years from Earth has been discovered to have a mass equal to 2 billion times the mass of our sun.   It is located in the M87 Galaxy in the constellation Virgo. Capture5 Figure 3:  In 1994 the Hubble Space Telescope discovered a huge black hole approximately 300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 miles from planet Earth nestled among the stars of the M87 galaxy in the Virgo constellation.  Astronomers estimate that it is 2,000,000,ooo times heavier than our son.  That black hole’s event horizon has a radius of 3,700,000,000 miles or about 40 astronomical units. One astronomical unit being the distance from the earth to our sun.The graph presented in Figure 4 links the masses of various celestial bodies with their corresponding event horizons.  Notice that both the horizontal and the vertical axes range over 20 orders of magnitude!  In 1942 the Indian-born American astrophysicist, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, demonstrated from theoretical considerations that the smallest black hole that can result from the collapse of a main-sequence star, must have a mass that is equal to approximately 3 suns with a corresponding event horizon of 5.5 miles.  The event horizon of a black hole is the maximum radius from which no light can escape. The graph presented in Figure 4 links the masses of various celestial bodies with their corresponding event horizons.  Notice that both the horizontal and the vertical axes range over 20 orders of magnitude!  In 1942 the Indian-born American astrophysicist, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, demonstrated from theoretical considerations that the smallest black hole that can result from the collapse of a main-sequence star, must have a mass that is equal to approximately 3 suns with a corresponding event horizon of 5.5 miles.  The event horizon of a black hole is the maximum radius from which no light can escape.

See all the ATI open-enrollment course schedule

https://aticourses.com/schedule.html

See all the ATI courses on 1 page. What courses would you like to see scheduled as an open-enrollment or on-site course near your facility? ATI is planning its schedule of technical training courses and would like your recommendations of courses that will help your project and/or company. These courses can also be held on-site at your facility.

https://aticourses.com/catalog_of_all_ATI_courses.htm

   

DEORBITING SPACE DEBRIS FRAGMENTS USING ONLY EQUIPMENT LOCATED ON THE GROUND

The researchers at NORAD*, which is located under Cheyenne Mountain in Colorado Springs, Colorado, are currently tracking 20,000 objects in space as big as a softball or bigger.  Most of these orbiting objects are space debris fragments that can pose a collision hazard to other orbiting satellites such as the International Space Station. Tracking these […]
The researchers at NORAD*, which is located under Cheyenne Mountain in Colorado Springs, Colorado, are currently tracking 20,000 objects in space as big as a softball or bigger.  Most of these orbiting objects are space debris fragments that can pose a collision hazard to other orbiting satellites such as the International Space Station. Tracking these fragments of debris is complicated and expensive.  Preventing collisions is expensive, too.  So, too, is designing and building space vehicles that can withstand high-speed impacts.  A cheaper alternative may be to sweep some of the debris out of space to minimize its hazard to other orbit-crossing satellites. When two orbiting objects collide with one another, the energy exchange can be large and destructive.  Two one-pound fragments impacting each other in a solid collision in low-altitude orbits intersecting at a 15-degree incidence angle can create the energy caused by exploding two pounds of TNT!! One scientific study showed that returning substantial numbers of debris fragments to Earth with a hydrogen-fueled spaceborne tug would cost approximately $3 billion for each percent reduction in the fragment population – which has been increasing by about 12 percent per year, on average. Fortunately, a powerful, but relatively inexpensive laser on the ground pointing vertically upward can be used to deorbit fragments of space debris traveling around the earth in low-altitude orbits.  The radial velocity increment provided by such a ground-based laser causes the object to reenter the earth’s atmosphere as shown in  the sketch in the upper left-hand corner of Figure 1. The total required velocity increment can be added in much smaller increments a little at a time over days or weeks.  Drag with the atmosphere was neglected in the case considered in Figure 1, but, in the real world, atmospheric drag would help the object return to Earth. Radiation pressure created by the assumed 50,000 watt laser beam is equivalent to 40 suns spread over the one square foot cross section of the object.  The total photon pressure equals 1/13th of a pound per square foot. *  NORAD = North American Aerospace Defense (Command) Figure1The researchers at NORAD*, which is located under Cheyenne Mountain in Colorado Springs, Colorado, are currently tracking 20,000 objects in space as big as a softball or bigger.  Most of these orbiting objects are space debris fragments that can pose a collision hazard to other orbiting satellites such as the International Space Station. Tracking these fragments of debris is complicated and expensive.  Preventing collisions is expensive, too.  So, too, is designing and building space vehicles that can withstand high-speed impacts.  A cheaper alternative may be to sweep some of the debris out of space to minimize its hazard to other orbit-crossing satellites. When two orbiting objects collide with one another, the energy exchange can be large and destructive.  Two one-pound fragments impacting each other in a solid collision in low-altitude orbits intersecting at a 15-degree incidence angle can create the energy caused by exploding two pounds of TNT!! One scientific study showed that returning substantial numbers of debris fragments to Earth with a hydrogen-fueled spaceborne tug would cost approximately $3 billion for each percent reduction in the fragment population – which has been increasing by about 12 percent per year, on average. Fortunately, a powerful, but relatively inexpensive laser on the ground pointing vertically upward can be used to deorbit fragments of space debris traveling around the earth in low-altitude orbits.  The radial velocity increment provided by such a ground-based laser causes the object to reenter the earth’s atmosphere as shown in  the sketch in the upper left-hand corner of Figure 1. The total required velocity increment can be added in much smaller increments a little at a time over days or weeks.  Drag with the atmosphere was neglected in the case considered in Figure 1, but, in the real world, atmospheric drag would help the object return to Earth. Radiation pressure created by the assumed 50,000 watt laser beam is equivalent to 40 suns spread over the one square foot cross section of the object.  The total photon pressure equals 1/13th of a pound per square foot. *  NORAD = North American Aerospace Defense (Command) Figure2 Figure 2:  These engineering calculations show that the 20,000 space debris fragments now circling the earth in low-altitude orbits could, on average, each be deorbited with ground-based lasers for approximately $40,000 worth of electrical power.  Those same ground-based lasers could be used in a different mode to reboost valuable or dangerous payloads in low-altitude orbits or to send those payloads bound for geosynchoronous orbits onto their transfer ellipses.  (SOURCE:  Short course “Fundamentals of Space Exploration”.  Instructor: Tom Logsdon. (Seal Beach, CA)

See all the ATI open-enrollment course schedule

https://aticourses.com/schedule.html

See all the ATI courses on 1 page. What courses would you like to see scheduled as an open-enrollment or on-site course near your facility? ATI is planning its schedule of technical training courses and would like your recommendations of courses that will help your project and/or company. These courses can also be held on-site at your facility.

https://aticourses.com/catalog_of_all_ATI_courses.htm

AMERICA’S INFRARED SPITZER TELESCOPE by Tom Logsdon

Tom Logsdon teaches a number of courses for Applied Technology Institute including: Orbital & Launch Mechanics – Fundamentals GPS Technology Strapdown and Integrated Navigation Systems Breakthrough Thinking: Creative Solutions for Professional Success The article below was written by him could be of interest to our readers. AMERICA’S INFRARED SPITZER TELESCOPE “As in the soft and […]
ASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, which launched Aug. 25, 2003, will begin the “Beyond” phase of its mission on Oct. 1, 2016. Spitzer has been operating beyond the limits that were set for it at the beginning of its mission, and making discoveries in unexpected areas of science, such as exoplanets.
NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, which launched Aug. 25, 2003, will begin the “Beyond” phase of its mission on Oct. 1, 2016. Spitzer has been operating beyond the limits that were set for it at the beginning of its mission, and making discoveries in unexpected areas of science, such as exoplanets.
Tom Logsdon teaches a number of courses for Applied Technology Institute including:
  1. Orbital & Launch Mechanics – Fundamentals
  2. GPS Technology
  3. Strapdown and Integrated Navigation Systems
  4. Breakthrough Thinking: Creative Solutions for Professional Success
The article below was written by him could be of interest to our readers. AMERICA’S INFRARED SPITZER TELESCOPE “As in the soft and sweet eclipse, when soul meets soul on lover’s lips.”  

British Lyric Poet

                                                                                                Percy Shelly

                                                                                                     Prometheus Unbound, 1820

America’s famous inventor, Thomas Edison, The Wizard of Menlo Park, had long admired the somber, romantic words penned by England’s master poet Percy Shelly.  And, like Shelly, he, too, was enchanted with the sensual experiences conjured up by the periodic eclipses that blotted out the sun and the moon. In 1878 Edison clambered aboard the newly constructed transcontinental railroad headed from New Jersey to Wyoming where he hoped to utilize his newly constructed infrared sensor to study the total solar eclipse he knew would soon sweep across America’s western landscape.  When he arrived in Wyoming, the only building he could rent was an old chicken coop at the edge of the prairie.  And, as soon as the moon slipped in front of the sun causing the sky to darken, the chickens decided to come to roost. Soon The Wizard of Menlo Park was so busy trying to quiet his squawking companions, he caught only a fleeting glimpse of the rare and colorful spectacle lighting up the darkened daytime sky.  His infrared sensor, unfortunately, remained untested that day. Even if those agitated Wyoming chickens had behaved themselves with proper decorum during that unusual event, Thomas Edison’s sensor would have been entirely ineffective because most of the infrared frequencies emanating from the sun and the stars are absorbed by the atmosphere surrounding the earth.  However, sensors of similar design can, and do, handle important astronomical tasks when they are installed in cryogenically cooled telescopes launched into space by powerful and well-designed rockets. The infrared rays streaming down to earth from distant stars and galaxies lie just beyond the bright red colors at the edge of in the electromagnetic spectrum our eyes can see.  As such, they penetrate the clouds of dust found, in such abundance, in interstellar space.  The dust that has accumulated under your bed is not particularly valuable or interesting.  But the dust found in outer space is far more beneficial – and exciting, too! The Spitzer Space Telescope – a giant thermos bottle in space – now following along behind planet earth as it circles the sun, was an effective infrared telescope until it used up its entire supply of liquid helium coolant.  In the meantime, it has become a “warm” space-age telescope seeking out previously undiscovered exoplanets orbiting around suns trillions of miles away.  This is accomplished by observing their shadows periodically dimming the star’s visible light as the various planets coast in between the Spitzer and the celestial body being observed.

See all the ATI open-enrollment course schedule

https://aticourses.com/schedule.html

See all the ATI courses on 1 page. What courses would you like to see scheduled as an open-enrollment or on-site course near your facility? ATI is planning its schedule of technical training courses and would like your recommendations of courses that will help your project and/or company. These courses can also be held on-site at your facility.

https://aticourses.com/catalog_of_all_ATI_courses.htm

 

New Color Maps of Pluto

The Principal Investigator (PI) for the LORRI instrument is Andy Cheng, and it is operated from Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL) in Laurel, Maryland. Alan Stern is the PI for the MVIC and Ralph instruments, which are operated from the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas. And as you can plainly […]
The Principal Investigator (PI) for the LORRI instrument is Andy Cheng, and it is operated from Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL) in Laurel, Maryland. Alan Stern is the PI for the MVIC and Ralph instruments, which are operated from the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas. And as you can plainly see, the maps are quite detailed and eye-popping! Dr. Stern, who is also the PI of the New Horizons mission, commented on the release of the maps in a recent NASA press statement. As he stated, they are just the latest example of what the New Horizons mission accomplished during its historic mission: “The complexity of the Pluto system — from its geology to its satellite system to its atmosphere— has been beyond our wildest imagination. Everywhere we turn are new mysteries. These new maps from the landmark exploration of Pluto by NASA’s New Horizons mission in 2015 will help unravel these mysteries and are for everyone to enjoy.”   Maps at https://www.universetoday.com/136498/hey-map-collectors-heres-new-map-pluto/

How to Promote Your ATI Course in Social Media

How to Promote Your ATI Course in Social Media LinkedIn for ATI Rocket Scientists   Did you know that for 52% of professionals and executives, their LinkedIn profile is the #1 or #2 search result when someone searches on their name? For ATI instructors, that number is substantially lower – just 17%. One reason is […]
How to Promote Your ATI Course in Social Media LinkedIn for ATI Rocket Scientists   Did you know that for 52% of professionals and executives, their LinkedIn profile is the #1 or #2 search result when someone searches on their name? For ATI instructors, that number is substantially lower – just 17%. One reason is that about 25% of ATI instructors do not have a LinkedIn profile. Others have done so little with their profile that it isn’t included in the first page of search results. If you are not using your LinkedIn profile, you are missing a huge opportunity. When people google you, your LinkedIn profile is likely the first place they go to learn about you. You have little control over what other information might be available on the web about you. But you have complete control over your LinkedIn profile. You can use your profile to tell your story – to give people the exact information you want them to have about your expertise and accomplishments.   Why not take advantage of that to promote your company, your services, and your course? Here are some simple ways to promote your course using LinkedIn… On Your LinkedIn Profile Let’s start by talking about how to include your course on your LinkedIn profile so it is visible anytime someone googles you or visits your profile. 1. Add your role as an instructor. Let people know that this course is one of the ways you share your knowledge. You can include your role as an instructor in several places on your profile:
  • Experience – This is the equivalent of listing your role as a current job. (You can have more than one current job.) Use Applied Technology Institute as the employer. Make sure you drag and drop this role below your full-time position.
  • Summary – Your summary is like a cover letter for your profile – use it to give people an overview of who you are and what you do. You can mention the type of training you do, along with the name of your course.
  • Projects – The Projects section gives you an excellent way to share the course without giving it the same status as a full-time job.
  • Headline – Your Headline comes directly below your name, at the top of your profile. You could add “ATI Instructor” at the end of your current Headline.
Start with an introduction, such as “I teach an intensive course through the Applied Technology Institute on [course title]” and copy/paste the description from your course materials or the ATI website. You can add a link to the course description on the ATI website. This example from Tom Logsdon’s profile, shows how you might phrase it:   Here are some other examples of instructors who include information about their courses on their LinkedIn profile:
  • Buddy Wellborn – His Headline says “Instructor at ATI” and Buddy includes details about the course in his Experience section.
  • D. Lee Fugal – Mentions the course in his Summary and Experience.
  • Jim Jenkins – Courses are included throughout Jim’s profile, including his Headline, Summary, Experience, Projects, and Courses.
  • 2. Link to your course page.
In the Contact Info section of your LinkedIn profile, you can link out to three websites. To add your course, go to Edit Profile, then click on Contact Info (just below your number of connections, next to a Rolodex card icon). Click on the pencil icon to the right of Websites to add a new site. Choose the type of website you are adding. The best option is “Other:” as that allows you to insert your own name for the link. You have 35 characters – you can use a shortened version of your course title or simply “ATI Course.” Then copy/paste the link to the page about your course. This example from Jim Jenkins’ profile shows how a customized link looks:   3. Upload course materials. You can upload course materials to help people better understand the content you cover. You could include PowerPoint presentations (from this course or other training), course handouts (PDFs), videos or graphics. They can be added to your Summary, Experience or Project. You can see an example of an upload above, in Tom Logsdon’s profile. 4. Add skills related to your course. LinkedIn allows you to include up to 50 skills on your profile. If your current list of skills doesn’t include the topics you cover in your course, you might want to add them. Go to the Skills & Endorsements section on your Edit Profile page, then click on Add skill. Start typing and let LinkedIn auto-complete your topic. If your exact topic isn’t included in the suggestions, you can add it. 5. Ask students for recommendations. Are you still in touch with former students who were particularly appreciative of the training you provided in your course? You might want to ask them for a recommendation that you can include on your profile. Here are some tips on asking for recommendations from LinkedIn expert Viveka Von Rosen. 6. Use an exciting background graphic. You can add an image at the top of your profile – perhaps a photo of you teaching the course, a photo of your course materials, a graphic from your presentation, or simply some images related to your topic. You can see an example on Val Traver’s profile. Go to Edit Profile, then run your mouse over the top of the page (just above your name). You will see the option to Edit Background. Click there and upload your image. The ideal size is 1400 pixels by 425. LinkedIn prefers a JPG, PNG or GIF. Of course, only upload an image that you have permission to use.   Share News about Your Course You can also use LinkedIn to attract more attendees to your course every time you teach. 7. When a course date is scheduled, share the news as a status update. This lets your connections know that you are teaching a course – it’s a great way to reach the people who are most likely to be interested and able to make referrals. Go to your LinkedIn home page, and click on the box under your photo that says “Share an update.” Copy and paste the URL of the page on the ATI website that has the course description. Once the section below populates with the ATI Courses logo and the course description, delete the URL. Replace it with a comment such as: “Looking forward to teaching my next course on [title] for @Applied Technology Institute on [date] at [location].” Note that when you finish typing “@Applied Technology Institute” it will give you the option to click on the company name. When you do that ATI will know you are promoting the course, and will be deeply grateful! When people comment on your update, it’s nice to like their comment or reply with a “Thank you!” message. Their comment shares the update with their network, so they are giving your course publicity. If you want to start doing more with status updates, here are some good tips about what to share (and what not to share) from LinkedIn expert Kim Garst. 8. Share the news in LinkedIn Groups. If you have joined any LinkedIn Groups in your areas of expertise, share the news there too. Of course, in a Group you want to phrase the message a little differently. Instead of “Looking forward to teaching…” you might say “Registration is now open for…” or “For everyone interested in [topic], I’m teaching…” You could also ask a thought-provoking question on one of the topics you cover. Here are some tips about how to start an interesting discussion in a LinkedIn Group. 9. Post again if you still have seats available. If the course date is getting close and you are looking for more people to register, you should post again. The text below will work as a status update and in most LinkedIn Groups. “We still have several seats open for my course on [title] on [date] at [location]. If you know of anyone who might be interested, could you please forward this? Thanks. ” “We have had a few last-minute cancellations for my course on [title] on [date] at [location]. Know anyone who might be interested in attending?” 10. Blog about the topic of the course. When you publish blog posts on LinkedIn using their publishing platform, you get even more exposure than with a status update:
  • The blog posts are pushed out to all your connections.
  • They stay visible on your LinkedIn profile, and
  • They are made available to Google and other search engines.
A blog post published on LinkedIn will rank higher than one posted elsewhere, because LinkedIn is such an authority site. So this can give your course considerable exposure. You probably have written articles or have other content relevant to the course. Pick something that is 750-1500 words. To publish it, go to your LinkedIn home page, and click on the link that says “Publish a post.” The interface is very simple – easier than using Microsoft Word. Include an image if you can. You probably have something in your training materials that will be perfect. At the end of the post, add a sentence that says: “To learn more, attend my course on [title].” Link the title to the course description on the ATI website. For more tips about blogging, you are welcome to join ProResource’s online training website. The How to Write Blog Posts for LinkedIn course is free. Take the first step The most important version of your bio in the digital world is your LinkedIn summary. If you only make one change as a result of reading this blog post, it should be to add a strong summary to your LinkedIn profile. Write the summary promoting yourself as an expert in your field, not as a job seeker. Here are some resources that can help: Write the first draft of your profile in a word processing program to spell-check and ensure you are within the required character counts. Then copy/paste it into the appropriate sections of your LinkedIn profile. You will have a stronger profile that tells your story effectively with just an hour or two of work! Contributed by guest blogger Judy Schramm. Schramm is the CEO of ProResource, a marketing agency that works with thought leaders to help them create a powerful and effective presence in social media. ProResource offers done-for-you services as well as social media executive coaching. Contact Judy Schramm at jschramm@proresource.com or 703-824-8482.  

New Horizons – This was almost a disaster, but was saved by knowledgeable scientists.

The people in the Mission Operations Center — “the MOC” — had been tracking NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft for 9½ years as it journeyed the breadth of the solar system. It was just 10 days away from the dwarf planet Pluto when, at 1:55 p.m. on July 4, it vanished. The disappearance of the spacecraft […]
The people in the Mission Operations Center — “the MOC” — had been tracking NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft for 9½ years as it journeyed the breadth of the solar system. It was just 10 days away from the dwarf planet Pluto when, at 1:55 p.m. on July 4, it vanished. The disappearance of the spacecraft challenged the New Horizons team to perform at its highest level and under the greatest of deadline pressures. They did work efficiently and saved the mission. We all wish the New Horizons team the best as they approach the busiest time of the fly-by encounter. I have known and respected many of the engineers and scientist for more than 20 years and am happy to praise their skills. The nature of the New Horizons mission did not permit any wiggle room, any delays, any do-overs, because it was a flyby. The spacecraft had one shot at Pluto, tightly scheduled: When it vanished, New Horizons was going about 32,000 miles per hour and on track to make its closest pass to Pluto, about 7,800 miles, at precisely 7:49 a.m. July 14. But as the New Horizons team gathered in the control room on July 4, no one knew whether their spacecraft was still alive.   Because New Horizons is so far away, it takes 4 1/2 hours for a one-way message between the spacecraft and the MOC. That means whatever happened to New Horizons on July 4 had actually happened 4 1/2 hours before the people in Mission Operations knew about it.   The team figured out what had gone wrong. The spacecraft’s main computer had been compressing new scientific data for downloading much later. At the same time, it was supposed to execute some previously uploaded commands. It got overloaded; the spacecraft has an “autonomy” system that can decide what to do if something’s not quite right. That system decided to switch from the main to the backup computer and go into safe mode. Read more at http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/the-inside-story-of-new-horizons-apollo-13-moment-on-its-way-to-pluto/2015/07/10/fb361248-25ad-11e5-b72c-2b7d516e1e0e_story.html Additional information about the start of the New Horizons mission and the key roles played by ATI instructors who worked (and are still working) on the New Horizons mission see https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2015/06/30/the-new-horizons-mission-to-plutoten-experts-who-worked-behind-the-scenes-on-the-new-horizons-mission-and-who-teach-for-aticourses/ https://aticourses.com/blog/index.php/2015/07/09/new-horizons-recollections-of-ground-system-engineer-steve-gemeny/

New Horizons: Recollections of Ground System Engineer, Steve Gemeny

When we think about the ground system on a space mission we tend to consider all the systems associated with commanding, receiving and archiving telemetry, and all the communications systems and equipment that makes that all work.  We plan contingencies, and redundancies, we back up everything in multiple formats, and on long duration missions like […]
This image of Pluto from New Horizons’ Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) was received on July 8, and has been combined with lower-resolution color information from the Ralph instrument.

When we think about the ground system on a space mission we tend to consider all the systems associated with commanding, receiving and archiving telemetry, and all the communications systems and equipment that makes that all work.  We plan contingencies, and redundancies, we back up everything in multiple formats, and on long duration missions like New Horizons someone eventually has to address “how are we going to keep all that stuff on the ground running for 10 – 20 years”-  and produces a Longevity Plan.

But once everything is all setup, and operational, and all the staff are at their stations on launch day – having already given the first “Go For Launch” pole responses with 5 hours till launch – You have to wonder, did anyone ever consider what to do if the entire JHU/APL campus goes dark!

No one had.  And with a newly installed cutover for the main (PEPCO) power feed providing an automatic transfer to a backup (BGE) feed  no one expected to ever need the capability, let alone that it would failed to transfer.  It did- at about 5:30 am on launch day while I was on console at KSC.  The rapid application of backup generators to sustain the Mission Operations Center at APL only solved half of the issues…  Network switches and routers were scattered across campus, most only running on UPS Power until that failed too… there was no cooling air to keep everything operating within normal temperatures on January 18, 2006…  Things were going from bad to worse and the Mission System Engineer was heard to say “  I’ve seen how quickly a Launch day can get deep into the contingency  plan, I’m not starting a launch when we are already this deep into solving unplanned contingencies”. This resulted in the launch being scrubbed and resumed on January 19th after power and environmental control systems were restored campus wide at APL.

Fortunately, I spent the time that afternoon to write the whole thing up in case I was asked to give a report, I’ve got pictures of generators outside Building 13, with external air handlers and chillers hosed up to blowers and leaks flooding the hallways…  It was a ZOO!.  I was safe at KSC and we restarted the count for a successful launch on the 19th.

Steve Gemeny teaches Ground Systems Design & Operations https://aticourses.com/ground_systems_design.htm course for ATICourses.

Other scientists & engineers that worked on the New Horizons and also teach for ATI are:

1. Dr. Alan Stern https://aticourses.com/planetary_science.htm

2. Eric Hoffman

https://aticourses.com/effective_design_reviews.htm

https://aticourses.com/spacecraft_quality.htm

https://aticourses.com/satellite_rf_communications.htm

3. Chris DeBoy

https://aticourses.com/Satellite_Communications_Design_Engineering.htm

4. Dr. Mark E. Pittelkau https://aticourses.com/attitude_determination.htm

5. Douglas Mehoke https://aticourses.com/spacecraft_thermal_control.htm

6. John Penn https://aticourses.com/fundamentals_of_RF_engineering.html

7. Timothy Cole

https://aticourses.com/space_based_lasers.htm

https://aticourses.com/Tactical_Intelligence_Surveillance_Reconnaissance_System_Engineering.htm

https://aticourses.com/Wireless_Sensor_Networking.htm

8. Robert Moore https://aticourses.com/satellite_rf_communications.htm

9. Jay Jenkins https://aticourses.com/spacecraft_solar_arrays.htm

 

Read more

 


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Are We At The Brink Of Space War? Russian Object 2014-28E could be a satellite-killer.

Applied Technology Institute (ATICourses) offers a variety of courses on Space, Satellite & Aerospace Engineering and Radar, Missiles & Combat Systems.  We think the news on mysterious Object 2014-28E launched by Russian military could be of interest to our readers. A strange vehicle floating above our atmosphere could be Russia’s first piece of space weaponry launched since […]
Space debris populations seen from outside geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Note the two primary debris fields, the ring of objects in GEO, and the cloud of objects in low earth orbit (LEO).
Applied Technology Institute (ATICourses) offers a variety of courses on Space, Satellite & Aerospace Engineering and Radar, Missiles & Combat Systems.  We think the news on mysterious Object 2014-28E launched by Russian military could be of interest to our readers.
A strange vehicle floating above our atmosphere could be Russia’s first piece of space weaponry launched since the end of the Cold War.
Called Object 2014-28E, it has been making unusual movements towards other Russian space vehicles over the past few weeks, and last night it was spotted moving over Guatemala.
It is now being monitored by Norad, the US Military space defence command, since no one can work out for certain what it is.
On the one hand it could be nothing more than a civilian project to help clean up space junk, or a craft for refuelling Russian satellites already in space.
But another, more sinister theory, is that it has been designed to damage satellites belonging to other nations, such as those of the US. In other words, it could be a “satellite killer”.
Patricia Lewis, research director at think-tank Chatham House, told the FT: “It could have a number of functions, some civilian and some military. One possibility is for some kind of grabber bar.
“Another would be kinetic pellets which shoot out at another satellite. Or possibly there could be a satellite-to-satellite cyber attack or jamming.
She added that as long as countries are adopting military methods of attack on the ground, there is no reason why this shouldn’t extend to space. “It would be odd if space were to remain the one area that [militaries] don’t get their hands on,” she said.
It was only last week, after all, that hackers linked to the Chinese government infiltrated US federal weather satellites.
The fact that Russia has not declared the launch of this mysterious object has exacerbated fears of a revival of the Kremlin’s former project to destroy satellites. During the Cold War, Stalin introduced a project called Istrebitel Sputnikov for just this purpose, and sent military vehicles into space to damage US satellites.
The project came to an end in 1989 when the iron curtain fell – a time when many of the clandestine research projects Soviet and US engineers were working on were closed down.
But Russian military officials publicly stated that they would restart research if their relations with the US over anti-missile defence treaties deteriorated.
Given the many sanctions the West is currently placing on Russia due to its involvement in the Ukraine crisis, it seems like the time is ripe for Moscow to take up its space weapons once more.

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Two Galileo Satellites Are Parked In the Wrong Spots

Applied Technology Institute (ATI Courses) offers a variety of courses on spacecraft design. spacecraft quality control or spacecraft thermal design. We think the news below could be of interest to our readers. An international inquiry is under way into an embarrassing error which has left two multi-million European satellites that were launched from French Guiana in […]
The satellites were launched on Friday from French Guiana
The satellites were launched on Friday from French Guiana
Applied Technology Institute (ATI Courses) offers a variety of courses on spacecraft design. spacecraft quality control or spacecraft thermal design. We think the news below could be of interest to our readers. An international inquiry is under way into an embarrassing error which has left two multi-million European satellites that were launched from French Guiana in the wrong orbit. On 22 August, a Soyuz rocket launched the fifth and sixth satellites of Europe’s Galileo project, a satellite navigation system that will eventually comprise 30 satellites designed to make Europe independent of U.S., Russian, and other GPS systems. Unlike most Soyuz launches, the rocket did not lift off from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, but from Kourou, Europe’s space center in French Guiana.  Apparently the launch went off without incident, but it soon became apparent that the two satellites were injected into the wrong orbits. The upper stage of the Soyuz rocket, the Fregat-MT, injected them into elliptical orbits instead of circular ones, making the satellites unusable for GPS navigation. The issue was the result of a frozen full pipe that delivered hydrazine to thrusters necessary to align the Fregat upper stage ready for correct orbital injection. The freeze was the result of cold helium feed lines being installed in close proximity to the hydrazine fuel lines. They were collectedly the same support structure which led to a thermal bridge. This sequence of events occurred due to a design ambiguity which failed to recognize the possibility of thermal transfer between these components. While it doesn’t help the two satellites that are now effectively lost to the Galileo network, it is at least a simple fix and will not result in delays to the next launch scheduled for December.


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Kids Will Have a Blast at NASA Goddard’s Model Rocket Contest

Where: NASA Goddard Visitor Center in Beltsville Maryland When: Sunday July 20, 2014 noon to 4:00 pm Who: Youth age 15 and younger http://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/kidspost/celebrate-the-first-moon-landing-by-launching-model-rockets/2014/07/10/3771995e-0277-11e4-b8ff-89afd3fad6bd_story.html http://www.narhams.org/library/2014GoddardContest.pdf http://www.narhams.org/ Upcoming Launches June 28, Westminster This is our quarterly sport launch at the Carroll County Agricultural Center in Westminster, MD. July 6, Goddard This is the usual monthly launch […]
Where: NASA Goddard Visitor Center in Beltsville Maryland When: Sunday July 20, 2014 noon to 4:00 pm Who: Youth age 15 and younger http://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/kidspost/celebrate-the-first-moon-landing-by-launching-model-rockets/2014/07/10/3771995e-0277-11e4-b8ff-89afd3fad6bd_story.html http://www.narhams.org/library/2014GoddardContest.pdf http://www.narhams.org/ Upcoming Launches June 28, Westminster This is our quarterly sport launch at the Carroll County Agricultural Center in Westminster, MD. July 6, Goddard This is the usual monthly launch at Goddard Visitor Center. July 19, Mt. Airy This is our monthly sport launch at Mt. Airy, MD. Alex Mankevich is launch manager. July 20, Goddard Come join us at Goddard Visitor Center in Greenbelt, MD for our annual contest to commemorate the Apollo moon landing. This year marks the 45th anniversary of that historic event. We will be holding a spot landing contest that is free and open to the public. See the flyer for more information.

ATI Course Shines Light On Satellite Laser Communications

Applied Technology Institute (ATICourses) offers a variety of courses on Space & Satellite Technology. As laser technology draw increasing attention from the satellite industry, Applied Technology Institute (ATIcourses) is ready with a specialized program designed for individuals interested in this new frontier in wireless communications. The course is aimed at engineers, scientists and other professionals […]
Applied Technology Institute (ATICourses) offers a variety of courses on Space & Satellite Technology. As laser technology draw increasing attention from the satellite industry, Applied Technology Institute (ATIcourses) is ready with a specialized program designed for individuals interested in this new frontier in wireless communications. The course is aimed at engineers, scientists and other professionals grounded in traditional radio-frequency communications who want to be prepared as optical technology grows in prominence as a way to transmit data. The program will provide an overview of the differences and similarities between laser- and RF-based communications. The class will train participants in how to design, implement and optimize laser communications systems, and will focus on the specific challenges laser-based communications systems must overcome to connect hardware in space and on the ground efficiently and reliably. Upcoming session is scheduled for April 28-30, 2014, in Columbia, MD. The course will be taught by Dr. Hamid Hemmati, supervisor of the Optical Communications Group at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), where he has worked since 1986. Before joining JPL, Dr. Hemmati worked at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center and the U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology. He specializes in the use of laser technology for space-based communications and is the editor and author of two books about optical communications. For further information about ATI’s satellite laser communications course, including registration and cost details, visithttps://aticourses.com/satellite_laser_communications.htm
About Applied Technology Institute (ATIcourses or ATI) ATIcourses is a national leader in professional development seminars in the technical areas of space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, engineering, and signal processing. Since 1984, ATIcourses has presented leading-edge technical training to defense and NASA facilities, as well as DOD and aerospace contractors. ATI’s programs create a clear understanding of the fundamental principles and a working knowledge of current technology and applications. ATI offers customized on-site training at your facility anywhere in the United States, as well as internationally, and over 200 annual public courses in dozens of locations. ATI is proud to have world-class experts instructing courses. For more information, call 410-956-8805 or 1-888-501-2100 (toll free), or visit them on the web at www.ATIcourses.com. Note: Accredited media are invited to attend for free.
 
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Tribute to Robert Nelson (1944 – 2013)

Dr. Robert (Bob) A. Nelson was an engineer’s engineer. He was a well-respected first as a physics teacher, and then after earning his PhD, as a satellite communications expert, an author, a consultant and an instructor for the Applied Technology Institute course Satellite Communication Systems Engineering. Bob was president of Satellite Engineering Research Corporation, a […]

Dr. Robert (Bob) A. Nelson was an engineer’s engineer. He was a well-respected first as a physics teacher, and then after earning his PhD, as a satellite communications expert, an author, a consultant and an instructor for the Applied Technology Institute course Satellite Communication Systems Engineering. Bob was president of Satellite Engineering Research Corporation, a consulting firm in Bethesda, Maryland. He also served for a number of years as the Technical Editor for Via Sat magazine. He was a coauthor of the textbook Satellite Communications Systems Engineering (second edition).

Dr. Nelson was born in Mount Vernon, New York August 14, 1944. Bob died on Sunday April 28, 2013 after a many month battle with cancer.  In spite of the cancer he remained professionally active until the end teaching, and even chairing a technical session during the Satellite 2013 conference in April 2013. He will be missed. Dr. Nelson performed studies on satellite communications, orbit and constellation analysis, and spacecraft design for Space Systems/Loral, GLOBALSTAR, ICO, Sirius Satellite Radio, Arinc, NASA, Naval Research Laboratory, and many other companies and government agencies. Dr Nelson earned a degree in Engineering Physics from Lehigh University and decided that he was called to the teaching profession.  He went on to complete a Master of Education from Lehigh and became a Physics and Math teacher for 15 years in Armonk, New York. His interest in Physics continued to grow and Bob his PhD in Physics from the University of Maryland He was a licensed Professional Engineer. He taught in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland and the long-running short course Satellite Communication Systems Engineering for ATIcourses. Dr. Nelson’s clients included Space Systems/Loral, GLOBALSTAR, ICO, Arinc, Naval Research Laboratory, Lockheed Martin, Ball Aerospace, NASA and many other companies and government agencies. He was an active member of the Space and Satellite community and was recently moderator at the Satellite 2013 session “Quest to Defy Physics: Ka-band and Rain Attenuation”.  He is coauthor of the textbook Satellite Communication Systems Engineering, 2nd ed. (Prentice Hall, 1993). Dr. Nelson was the Technical Editor of Via Satellite magazine. He was a member of IEEE, AIAA, APS, AAPT, AAS, IAU, and ION. Essays on Space and Satellite Communications — by Robert A. Nelson   Dr Nelson was a respected and trusted colleague who had a passion and dedication for everything that he did.  

Training budgets: Smaller is not an option

  The debate on the budgets for the government organizations is pretty toxic in the US. Both US Navy and US Army alongside other organizations have declared budget shortfalls which effect many areas including training. Without commitment to training and learning new skills there can be no continuous improvement, which is one of the prime […]
  The debate on the budgets for the government organizations is pretty toxic in the US. Both US Navy and US Army alongside other organizations have declared budget shortfalls which effect many areas including training. Without commitment to training and learning new skills there can be no continuous improvement, which is one of the prime directives of any government or company. The Applied Technology Institute (ATI) specializes in short course technical training in space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, systems engineering and signal processing. Since 1984 ATI has provided leading-edge public courses and on-site technical training to defense and NASA facilities, as well as DOD and aerospace contractors. The courses provide a clear understanding of the fundamental principles and a working knowledge of current technology and applications.   When your company does not want to pay for the training you really want, as an alternative, you can:
  • Spent your own personal money and funds; if you believe in it and then you will do it
  • Find a user group who are practicing the skills you desire
  • Don’t accept the classic answer from the boss, “How does X help the business?”. If the training is relevant to you achieving a goal of being a much better employee then of course it is relevant.
  • Find another organization to work for
A training manager with a good team can:
  • Fight for your team and their training; fight for your team’s budget and don’t let the senior management take it away
  • Give up your personal training for the entire year and suggest that they allocate the extra budget to training for your team members
  • Perhaps, it is time to evaluate the relationship with the preferred supplier of training. Has your firm been getting decent value from the PSL (preferred supplier list)?
  • Find alternatives to training like brown bag lunches and/or collaborate with other businesses
Everybody needs training and self-improvement. Please share your opinion with us by commenting below.
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The future is here: Our children can partner with NASA on MARS studies

Who would have thought that our children can participate in NASA space and solar system studies directly? Now they can thanks to New NASA science resource called Wavelength. Wavelength site features hundreds of resources organized by topic and audience level from elementary to college, and out-of-school programs that span the extent of NASA science.  It […]
Who would have thought that our children can participate in NASA space and solar system studies directly? Now they can thanks to New NASA science resource called Wavelength. Wavelength site features hundreds of resources organized by topic and audience level from elementary to college, and out-of-school programs that span the extent of NASA science.  It not only lets users find nearly everything they want to know about NASA science, but it also allows them to provide direct feedback to NASA to enhance our products. Seven Washington Academy fifth-graders in Belvidere, IL are doing just that.  Although the young scientists aren’t quite ready for NASA yet, they’re helping gather research for it. Based on the information they gather, the students will propose a question to NASA — for example, was there ever ice on Mars? Then, the space agency will use the visible wavelength camera aboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft in orbit around the red planet to take photos that can help the young scholars answer their original question. The students will use Skype to present their findings to NASA scientists, who will place data into a database for experts to use. Aside from researching Mars, the process allows students to think independently and learn how to collaborate to solve problems.  This real-world application motivates students to question all theories and dive into studies themselves. There are even resources that I can explore with my pre-school age daughter Alice.  You can find them here. THANKS, NASA! For access to NASA Wavelength, visit: http://nasawavelength.org For information on NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, visit: http://science.nasa.gov/ For information about NASA education programs, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/education


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Three new residents arrive at International Space Station

The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft docked at the space station’s rooftop after a two-day orbital chase. Riding on the Soyuz were American astronaut Kevin Ford of NASA and Russian cosmonauts Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin, who are beginning a five-month mission to the space station. “We can see you, everything looks fine,” Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, who was […]
The Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft docked at the space station’s rooftop after a two-day orbital chase. Riding on the Soyuz were American astronaut Kevin Ford of NASA and Russian cosmonauts Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin, who are beginning a five-month mission to the space station. “We can see you, everything looks fine,” Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko, who was already onboard the station, told the approaching crew before the two spacecraft docked about 230 miles (370 km) over southern Ukraine. Ford, Novitskiy and Tarelkin launched into space on Tuesday (Oct. 23) atop a Soyuz rocket that blasted off from the Central Asian spaceport of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. They are the second half of the space station’s six-person Expedition 33 crew, which is commanded by NASA astronaut Sunita Williams. Malenchenko and Japanese astronaut Akihiko Hoshide round out the crew. The Soyuz spacecraft is bringing some fishy friends to the space station in addition to its human crew. The spacecraft is ferrying 32 small medaka fish to the space station so they can be placed inside a tank, called the Aquatic Habitat, for an experiment to study how fish adapt to weightlessness. Thursday’s Soyuz docking at the space station kicks off a flurry of arrivals and departures at the International Space Station. A robotic Dragon space capsule built by the private spaceflight company SpaceX will depart the space station on Sunday (Oct. 28) and splash down in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Southern California. The Dragon capsule will return nearly 2,000 pounds (907 kilograms) of science experiment hardware and other gear back to Earth. On Wednesday (Oct. 31), an unmanned Russian Progress spacecraft will launch toward the space station and arrive six hours later to make a Halloween delivery of food, equipment and other Halloween treats. Williams, Hoshide and Malenchenko are in the final weeks of their mission to the space station, and will return to Earth Nov. 12. At that time, Ford will take command of the space station crew to begin the Expedition 34 mission.
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Lunar Honeymoon: Can NASA Really Take Us There Within The Next 10 Years?

We all wonder where NASA’s new space development program will take us.  What kind of technologies will we employ?  What planets will we visit?  What will happen to the International Space Station (ISS)? All these questions and more where answered by NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver at the International Symposium for Personal and Commercial Spaceflight. […]
We all wonder where NASA’s new space development program will take us.  What kind of technologies will we employ?  What planets will we visit?  What will happen to the International Space Station (ISS)? All these questions and more where answered by NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver at the International Symposium for Personal and Commercial Spaceflight. Here are the key notes.
  • Private researchers and tourists will be able to travel to ISS and other orbital destination (“Vacation All I Ever Wanted!”)
  • An international expedition will set out for a mission to asteroid (earlier plans were used during the filming of “Armageddon”)
  • A new planet containing water, i.e. habitable  will be discovered by The Webb Telescope
  • Every earthquake and tsunami can be predicted way in advance via personal hand held computer device
  • 98 percent of Earth-crossing asteroids are being tracked and cataloged
  • Bases and outposts are being set up on the Moon (Honeymoon anybody?)
You can read more of Ms. Garver’s comments here. How realistic do you think those predictions are?  Please comment below.  

If You Want to BE a Rocket Scientist, Maybe You should LISTEN to one

Video Clip: Click to Watch Everything about Orbital Mechanics is Counterintuitive  Award-winning rocket scientist, Thomas S. Logsdon really enjoys teaching this short course titled, ATI’s Orbital Mechanics: Ideas and Insights, because everything about orbital mechanics is counterintuitive. In this comprehensive four day short course, Mr. Logsdon uses four hundred clever color graphics to clarify these and […]
Each student will receive a new personal GPS Navigator with multi-channel capability
Video Clip: Click to Watch
Everything about Orbital Mechanics is Counterintuitive 
Award-winning rocket scientist, Thomas S. Logsdon really enjoys teaching this short course titled, ATI’s Orbital Mechanics: Ideas and Insights, because everything about orbital mechanics is counterintuitive. In this comprehensive four day short course, Mr. Logsdon uses four hundred clever color graphics to clarify these and a dozen other puzzling mysteries associated with orbital mechanics. He also provides you with a few simple one-page derivations using real-world inputs to illustrate all the key concepts being explored. For example, did you know that if you fly your spacecraft into a 100-mile circular orbit and: • Put on the brakes, your spacecraft speeds up! • Mash down the accelerator, it slows down!! • Throw a banana peel out the window and 45 minutes later it will come back and slap you in the face!!! Why not take a short course? Since 1984, the Applied Technology Institute (ATI) has provided leading-edge public courses and onsite technical training to DoD and NASA personnel, as well as contractors. ATI short courses are less than a week long and are designed to help you keep your professional knowledge up-to-date. Our courses provide a practical overview of space and defense technologies which provide a strong foundation for understanding the issues that must be confronted in the use, regulation and development of complex systems. Whether you are a busy engineer, a technical expert or a project manager, you can enhance your understanding of satellite systems in a short time. You will become aware of the basic vocabulary essential to interact meaningfully with your colleagues. Determine for yourself the value of our courses before you sign up. Click here for more information on this course Click below to see slide samples from this course   Click below to see a video clip of this course on YouTube. What You Will Learn When You Take this Course: • How do we launch a satellite into orbit and maneuver it into a new location? • How do today’s designers fashion performance-optimal constellations of satellites swarming the sky? • How do planetary swing by maneuvers provide such amazing gains in performance? • How can we design the best multi-stage rocket for a particular mission? • What are libration point orbits? Were they really discovered in 1772? How do we place satellites into halo orbits circling around these empty points in space? • What are JPL’s superhighways in space? How were they discovered? How are they revolutionizing the exploration of space? After attending the course you will receive a full set of detailed notes from the class for future reference, as well as a certificate of completion. Each student will receive a new personal GPS Navigator with multi-channel capability. Please visit our website for more valuable information. About ATI and the Instructors Our mission here at ATI is to provide expert training and the highest quality professional development in space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, and signal processing. We are not a one-size-fits-all educational facility. Our short classes include both introductory and advanced courses. ATI’s instructors are world-class experts who are the best in the business. They are carefully selected for their ability to clearly explain advanced technology. For more than 30 years, Thomas S. Logsdon, has conducted broad ranging studies on orbital mechanics at McDonnell Douglas, Boeing Aerospace, and Rockwell International His key research projects have included Project Apollo, the Skylab capsule, the nuclear flight stage and the GPS radionavigation system. Mr. Logsdon has taught 300 short courses and lectured in 31 different countries on six continents. He has written 40 technical papers and journal articles and 29 technical books including Striking It Rich in Space, Orbital Mechanics: Theory and Applications, Understanding the Navstar, and Mobile Communication Satellites. Dates and Locations The next date and location of this short course is: Jan 9-12, 2012 Cape Canaveral,FL


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Can You Tell Your Downlink from Your Uplink in the Dark of Space?

Video Clip: Click to Watch If not, then maybe you need ATI’s SATCOM Technology and Networks course This three-day short course provides accurate background in the fundamentals, applications and approach for cutting-edge satellite networks for use in military and civil government environments. The focus is on commercial SATCOM solutions (GEO and LEO) and government satellite systems […]
MILSTAR Satellite Communications System
Video Clip: Click to Watch
If not, then maybe you need ATI’s SATCOM Technology and Networks course This three-day short course provides accurate background in the fundamentals, applications and approach for cutting-edge satellite networks for use in military and civil government environments. The focus is on commercial SATCOM solutions (GEO and LEO) and government satellite systems (WGS, MUOS and A-EHF), assuring thorough coverage of evolving capabilities. It is appropriate for non-technical professionals, managers and engineers new to the field as well as experienced professionals wishing to update and round out their understanding of current systems and solutions. ATI’S SATCOM TECHNOLOGY AND NETWORKS COURSE What you will learn: • How a satellite functions to provide communications links to typical earth stations and user terminals • The various technologies used to meet requirements for bandwidth, service quality and reliability • Basic characteristics of modulation, coding and Internet Protocol processing • How satellite links are used to satisfy requirements of the military for mobility and broadband network services for warfighters • The characteristics of the latest US-owned MILSATCOM systems, including WGS, MUOS, A-EHF, and the approach for using commercial satellites at L, C, X, Ku and Ka bands • Proper application of SATCOM to IP networks Course Outline, Samplers, and Notes In addition to the course notes, each participant will receive a book of collected tutorial articles written by the instructor, and soft copies of the link budgets discussed in the course. Please visit our website for more valuable information. About ATI and the Instructors Our mission here at ATI is to provide expert training and the highest quality professional development in space, communications, defense, sonar, radar, and signal processing. We are not a one-size-fits-all educational facility. Our short classes include both introductory and advanced courses. ATI’s instructors are world-class experts who are the best in the business. They are carefully selected for their ability to clearly explain advanced technology. Bruce Elbert is a recognized SATCOM technology and network expert and has been involved in the satellite and telecommunications industries for over 35 years. He consults to major satellite organizations and government agencies in the technical and operations aspects of applying satellite technology. Prior to forming his consulting firm, he was Senior Vice President of Operations in the international satellite division of Hughes Electronics (now Boeing Satellite), where he introduced advanced broadband and mobile satellite technologies. He directed the design of several major satellite projects, including Palapa A, Indonesia’s original satellite system; the Hughes Galaxy satellite system; and the development of the first GEO mobile satellite system capable of serving handheld user terminals. He has written seven books on telecommunications and IT. Times, Dates, and Locations This short course can be presented at your facility at your convenience. An onsite presentation is economical when 6-8 people want the course and a great value if you have more than 10 who are interested. I suggest that you read through the course description and then call me personally, Jim Jenkins, at 410-956-8805 or toll free at 1-888-501-2100, and I’ll explain in detail what we can do for you, what it will cost, and what you can expect in results and future capabilities.


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Wait for it………. Now run!!!!! 6-Ton Satellite Is About To Hit The Earth!

Is it true? Unfortunately, yes.  It is true.  NASA’s massive dead satellite UARS (The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) is on its way, freefalling towards The Earth. What is it? The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is an orbital observatory whose mission was to study the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly the protective ozone layer. The 5,900-kilogram satellite was deployed from Space Shuttle Discovery […]
Is it true?  What is it? When will it hit?  And WHERE?!  What do we do? Is it true? Unfortunately, yes.  It is true.  NASA’s massive dead satellite UARS (The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) is on its way, freefalling towards The Earth. What is it? The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is an orbital observatory whose mission was to study the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly the protective ozone layer. The 5,900-kilogram satellite was deployed from Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-48 mission in September 1991. UARS entered orbit on 15 September 1991 at an operational altitude of 600 kilometers, with an orbital inclination of 57 degrees. The original mission duration was to be only three years, but in June 2005, 14 years after the satellite’s launch, six of its ten instruments were still operational. UARS was decommissioned in 2005, and a final orbit-lowering burn was performed, followed by the passivation of the satellite’s systems, in early December 2005. On October 26, 2010, the International Space Station performed a debris-avoidance maneuver in response to a conjunction with UARS. When will it hit? The satellite is expected to fall from orbit during the afternoon of September 23, 2011, plus or minus a day, according to NASA. Where will it hit? UARS will re-enter the atmosphere somewhere between 57 degrees north and 57 degrees south. That means the nearly 6-ton craft will hit the Earth’s atmosphere anywhere from northern Canada to southern South America. NASA estimates the debris footprint will be about 500 miles (804 kilometers) long. What do we do? The word from NASA is direct: “If you find something you think may be a piece of UARS, do not touch it. Contact a local law enforcement official for assistance.”   For now, let’s buckle up and wait.  The Earth is three-fourths oceans and the odds of a harmless splashdown are good!    


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Is NASA Tech Development Behind Schedule?

Yes, according to National Research Council report. Future success of space missions depends on new technology that NASA should already be developing. NASA’s technology base is “largely depleted,” leaving the agency without the advancements it needs to meet the future goals of its space program, according to a new report. “Success in executing future NASA […]
Yes, according to National Research Council report. Future success of space missions depends on new technology that NASA should already be developing. NASA’s technology base is “largely depleted,” leaving the agency without the advancements it needs to meet the future goals of its space program, according to a new report. “Success in executing future NASA space missions will depend on advanced technology developments that should already be underway,” according to an Interim Report on NASA’s Draft Space Technology Roadmaps by the National Research Council. “However, it has been years since NASA has had a vigorous, broad-based program in advanced space technology.” With the space shuttle program over, NASA’s space program is in a period of transition that’s being hampered by budget cuts. Still, NASA has set its sights on ambitious goals for future space missions, such as sending people to the moon, Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit. The agency has 14 space technology roadmaps–which NASA commissioned the report to examine–that identify “a wide variety of opportunities to revitalize NASA’s advanced space technology development program. The report’s findings suggest that the completion of these roadmaps could be in jeopardy. The report cites several examples where there are gaps. For instance, to send people to destinations beyond low earth orbit, the agency needs new technology to mitigate the effects of space radiation, from both the cosmic ray background and from solar flares. It also needs new, state-of the art environmental control and life support systems (ECLSSs) that are highly reliable and can be easily repaired. The report makes suggestions for how NASA can better ensure the success of its space technology program, such as increasing program stability; pursuing evolutionary improvements and adopting intermediate goals; and maintaining a balance between the focus and flexibility of the roadmaps in establishing technical approaches. In a statement, NASA Chief Technologist Bobby Braun said the agency largely agrees with the findings of the report. He added that NASA also is looking forward to the completion of the final report, which is due in January. It will be used as guidance for the agency’s space-technology investment decisions in fiscal year 2012. You can download a copy of the Interim Report here . What is your opinion?  Please comment below…
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